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With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
CONTEXT Immune suppression after organ transplantation is associated with a markedly increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and a few virus-associated cancers. Although it is generally accepted that other cancers do not occur at increased rates, there have been few long-term population-based cohort studies performed. OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence(More)
As it turns out, this prediction is far from having been fulfilled: in spite of their scientific and social interest, their real effectiveness and a certain technological development, prosthetic devices employing the principle of "sensory substitution" are not widely used by the blind persons for whom they were originally destined. After a brief recall of(More)
Apart from the current human-induced climate change, the Holocene is notable for its stable climate. In contrast, the preceding age, the Pleistocene, was a time of intensive climatic fluctuations, with temperature changes of up to 15 degrees C occurring within a few decades. These climatic changes have substantially influenced both animal and plant(More)
This article revisits the concept of autopoiesis and examines its relation to cognition and life. We present a mathematical model of a 3D tesselation automaton, considered as a minimal example of autopoiesis. This leads us to a thesis T1: "An autopoietic system can be described as a random dynamical system, which is defined only within its organized(More)
Patients on maintenance dialysis have increased risk for cancer, especially in the kidney and urinary tract. In a retrospective cohort of 831,804 patients starting dialysis during 1980 to 1994 in the United States, Europe, or Australia and New Zealand, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for kidney and(More)
OBJECTIVE Some genome-wide scans and association studies for schizophrenia susceptibility genes have yielded significant positive findings, but there is disagreement between studies on their locations, and no mutation has yet been found in any gene. Since schizophrenia is a complex disorder, a study with sufficient power to detect a locus with a small or(More)
Global alterations in chromatin structure profoundly influence gene expression in thoracic neoplasms, silencing tumor suppressors while facilitating the expression of various cancer testis antigens such as NY-ESO-1. Although recent studies have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors can potentiate tumor suppressor gene induction mediated by demethylating(More)
Precise sexing--97% to 99% accuracy--of adult chest plates is possible when highly predictive costal cartilage ossification patterns are combined with four simple metric determinations. More than 1100 chest plate roentgenograms were evaluated for ossification pattern, fourth rib width, corpus width, sternal length and sternal area in an adult decedent(More)