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Using the guinea pig as a model host, we show that aerosol spread of influenza virus is dependent upon both ambient relative humidity and temperature. Twenty experiments performed at relative humidities from 20% to 80% and 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, or 30 degrees C indicated that both cold and dry conditions favor transmission. The relationship between(More)
Although highly effective in the general population when well matched to circulating influenza virus strains, current influenza vaccines are limited in their utility due to the narrow breadth of protection they provide. The strain specificity of vaccines presently in use mirrors the exquisite specificity of the neutralizing antibodies that they induce, that(More)
Since 2003, more than 380 cases of H5N1 influenza virus infection of humans have been reported. Although the resultant disease in these cases was often severe or fatal, transmission of avian influenza viruses between humans is rare. The precise nature of the barrier blocking human-to-human spread is unknown. It is clear, however, that efficient(More)
The clinical impact of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (pdmH1N1) has been relatively low. However, amino acid substitution D222G in the hemagglutinin of pdmH1N1 has been associated with cases of severe disease and fatalities. D222G was introduced in a prototype pdmH1N1 by reverse genetics, and the effect on virus receptor binding, replication,(More)
The widespread incidence of H5N1 influenza viruses in bird populations poses risks to human health. Although the virus has not yet adapted for facile transmission between humans, it can cause severe disease and often death. Here we report the generation of combinatorial antibody libraries from the bone marrow of five survivors of the recent H5N1 avian(More)
Avian influenza viruses of the H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes, and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), are important pathogens in poultry worldwide. Specifically, the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus is a particular threat because it has now occurred in more than 40 countries on several continents. Inasmuch as most chickens worldwide are vaccinated(More)
Influenza causes significant morbidity in tropical regions; however, unlike in temperate zones, influenza in the tropics is not strongly associated with a given season. We have recently shown that influenza virus transmission in the guinea pig model is most efficient under cold, dry conditions, which are rare in the tropics. Herein, we report the lack of(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype occasionally transmit from birds to humans and can cause severe systemic infections in both hosts. PB1-F2 is an alternative translation product of the viral PB1 segment that was initially characterized as a pro-apoptotic mitochondrial viral pathogenicity factor. A full-length PB1-F2 has(More)
Immune recognition of protein antigens relies on the combined interaction of multiple antibody loops, which provide a fairly large footprint and constrain the size and shape of protein surfaces that can be targeted. Single protein loops can mediate extremely high-affinity binding, but it is unclear whether such a mechanism is available to antibodies. Here(More)
Influenza causes significant morbidity in tropical regions; however, unlike in temperate zones, influenza in the tropics is not strongly associated with a given season. We have recently shown that influenza virus transmission in the guinea pig model is most efficient under cold, dry conditions, which are rare in the tropics. Herein, we report the lack of(More)