John Spiropoulos

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Immunohistochemistry for PrPSc is used widely in scrapie diagnosis. In natural scrapie cases the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) has revealed the existence of up to 12 different morphological types of immunostained deposits. The significance of this pattern variability in relation to genotype has not been studied extensively in natural disease. In this(More)
Scrapie belongs to a group of diseases known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Two different categories of naturally occurring scrapie have been identified: classical scrapie, which was first recorded around 1750, and atypical scrapie or ‘Nor-98’, which was first identified in Norway in 1998. The molecular characteristics(More)
This study examines tissues from sequential-kill, time-course pathogenesis studies to refine estimates of the age at which disease-specific PrP (PrP(Sc)) can first be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and related peripheral nervous system ganglia of cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Such estimates are important for risk(More)
BACKGROUND Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation, of two pools of scrapie agents sourced in Great Britain before and during the BSE epidemic. Two groups of ten cattle were each inoculated(More)
It is widely accepted that abnormal forms of the prion protein (PrP) are the best surrogate marker for the infectious agent of prion diseases and, in practice, the detection of such disease-associated (PrP(d)) and/or protease-resistant (PrP(res)) forms of PrP is the cornerstone of diagnosis and surveillance of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies(More)
Primary isolation of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in RIII mice generates a lesion profile believed to be reproducible and distinct from that produced by classical scrapie. This profile, which is characterized by peaks at gray matter areas 1, 4 and 7 (dorsal medulla, hypothalamus and septal nuclei), is used to diagnose BSE on primary isolation. The(More)
The infectivity in tissues from cattle exposed orally to the agent of BSE was assayed by the intracerebral inoculation of cattle. In addition to the infectivity in the central nervous system and distal ileum at stages of pathogenesis previously indicated by mouse bioassay, traces of infectivity were found in the palatine tonsil of cattle killed 10 months(More)
To investigate the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals' peripheral tissues, we challenged neonatal lambs orally with atypical scrapie; they were then killed at 12 or 24 months. Screening test results were negative for disease-specific prion protein in all but 2(More)
The onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation was studied in Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR and ARR/ARR prion protein gene (Prnp) genotypes (where A stands for alanine, R for arginine and Q for glutamine at codons 136, 154 and 171 of PrP), following experimental oral infection with(More)
Vascular amyloidosis in the brain is a pathological feature of ovine scrapie. Its occurrence varies between sheep, but whether this variation reflects differences in the host or the infecting scrapie strain (or both) is not clear. To investigate whether amyloidosis, like vacuolation and PrPsc distribution, is associated with genotype, the brains from 131(More)