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UNLABELLED Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general(More)
Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food, also known as food fraud, is the intentional adulteration of food for financial advantage. A common form of EMA, undeclared substitution with alternative ingredients, is usually a health concern because of allergen labeling requirements. As demonstrated by the nearly 300,000 illnesses in China from melamine(More)
This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott(More)
UNLABELLED Food fraud, including the more defined subcategory of economically motivated adulteration, is a food risk that is gaining recognition and concern. Regardless of the cause of the food risk, adulteration of food is both an industry and a government responsibility. Food safety, food fraud, and food defense incidents can create adulteration of food(More)
This paper introduces the topic of Food Fraud with translations to Russian, Korean, and Chinese. The concepts provide a system-wide focus leading to prevention. The goal is not to detect Food Fraud but to adjust entire food supply chains to reduce fraud opportunities. Food Fraud is a recently defined area of Food Protection between Food Safety (such as(More)
Background: Product counterfeiting is growing in scope, scale, and threat. This includes awareness of deceptive and non-deceptive counterfeiting types. (This paper does not consider copyright or digital piracy, currency counterfeiting, fraudulent documents, or artwork forgery.) In response, many organizations are focusing on product counterfeiting including(More)
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