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Exogenous application of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has successful implications in treating brain disorders, and research is beginning to identify ways to mimic this exogenous application by activating endogenous stem cell compartments. The recent discovery of a functional endocannabinoid system in murine NPCs (mNPCs) represents one potential(More)
Somatostatin and cortistatin are neuromodulators with divergent expression patterns and biological roles. Whereas expression and function of genes encoding somatostatin (PSS1) and the related peptide cortistatin (PSS2) have been studied in detail for the central nervous system (CNS) and immune system, relatively little is known about their expression(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system directed against astrocytes. Initially diagnosed in individuals with monophasic or relapsing optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, NMO is now recognized as a demyelinating disorder with pleiotropic presentations due to the identification of a specific autoantibody response(More)
Interferon beta (IFN-β) is a mainline treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS); however its exact mechanism of action is not completely understood. IFN-β is known as an immunomodulator; although recent evidence suggests that IFN-β may also act directly on neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) in the central nervous system (CNS). NPCs can differentiate into all(More)
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