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BACKGROUND Episodes of viremia are common in African antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs. We sought to describe viremia, resuppression, and accumulation of resistance during first-line combination ART (cART) in South Africa. METHODS Retrospective analysis of a cohort receiving zidovudine, lamivudine, and either efavirenz or nevirapine with human(More)
Vitamin D has been suggested to have an effect on erythropoiesis. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in a population of individuals with vitamin D deficiency compared with those with normal levels in a population of a large integrated healthplan. A cross-sectional analysis in the period 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2006 of subjects with(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the USA, yet most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are not formally evaluated with a renal biopsy. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to determine common clinical indicators suggestive of(More)
RATIONALE There is a paucity of large cohort studies examining the association of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with clinical outcomes including all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes and chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVES We hypothesised that a diagnosis of incident OSA is associated with higher risks of these adverse clinical(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with larger body or fat mass have greater survival than normal to low mass. We hypothesized that mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), a conveniently measured surrogate of lean body mass (LBM), has stronger association with clinical outcomes than triceps skinfold (TSF), a surrogate of fat(More)
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular disease and risk factors including hypertension. The authors sought to determine prevalence rates of hypertension in adults tested for 25-hydroxyvitamin D categorized by their levels and evaluate odds ratios for hypertension at lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared with optimal levels. A(More)
BACKGROUND Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially if the underlying cause is incorrectly diagnosed and not treated appropriately. Often, the hospitalist is faced with a clinical dilemma when a patient presents with hyponatremia of an unclear etiology and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of and characterize resistant hypertension in a large representative population with successful hypertension management and reliable health information. PATIENT AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study using clinical encounter, laboratory, and administrative information from the Kaiser Permanente Southern(More)