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Inflammation is a healthy response to infection or danger and should be rapid, specific and terminated once the threat has passed. Inflammatory diseases, where this regulation fails, cause considerable human suffering. Treatments have successfully targeted pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor-necrosis factor (TNF), that directly induce genes encoding(More)
In the lymph node (LN) environment, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells display increased NF-κB activity compared with peripheral blood CLL cells, which contributes to chemoresistance. Antagonists of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) can induce apoptosis in various cancer cells in a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-dependent manner and are(More)
We appreciate the insights and concerns raised in the above letter to the editor. The authors have thoughtfully highlighted some important distinctions between the original derivation of NOTR and our validation study.1,2 Specifically, the original NOTR derivation included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina (UA), and "urgent and(More)
Intracellular nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors recognize antigens including bacterial peptidoglycans and initiate immune responses by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through activating NF-κB and MAP kinases. Receptor interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) is critical for NOD-mediated NF-κB activation and(More)
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