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Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates(More)
We have established four cell lines, UW228-1, UW228-2, UW228-3 and UW443, from two posterior fossa medulloblastomas. The three UW228 sublines originated from a tumor with a diploid DNA content, while the tumor of origin of UW443 was predominantly tetraploid. Both tumors displayed areas of immunopositivity for synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic(More)
TWIST, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that regulates mesodermal development, has been shown to promote tumor cell metastasis and to enhance survival in response to cytotoxic stress. Our analysis of rat C6 glioma cell-derived cDNA revealed TWIST expression, suggesting that the gene may play a role in the genesis and physiology of(More)
Gliomas are the most frequent adult primary brain tumor, and are invariably fatal. The most common diagnosis glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) afflicts 12,500 new patients in the U.S. annually, and has a median survival of approximately one year when treated with the current standard of care. Alkylating agents have long been central in the chemotherapy of GBM(More)
PURPOSE Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ap endo) is a key DNA repair activity that confers resistance to radiation- and alkylator-induced cytotoxic abasic sites in human cells. We assayed apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) to establish correlates with tumor and patient(More)
PURPOSE Primary brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death in children. Our purpose is (a) to assess the contribution of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to the resistance of pediatric brain tumor cell lines to clinical alkylating agents and (b) to evaluate variables for maximal potentiation of cell killing by the(More)
The DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to therapeutic methylating and chloroethylating agents in human brain tumor-derived cell lines. In this work, we assayed MGMT activity in 152 adult gliomas to establish correlates with patient and tumor characteristics. We also assayed MGMT in histologically normal brain(More)
Alkylating agents are standard components of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomas. We provide evidence here that Ape1/Ref-1, the major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (Ap endo), contributes to alkylating agent resistance in human glioma cells by incising DNA at abasic sites. We show that antisense oligonucleotides directed against Ape1/Ref-1 in(More)
The DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) contributes to the resistance of human brain tumor cell lines and xenografts to methylating and chloroethylating agents. We assayed MGMT in 174 newly diagnosed or recurrent gliomas to (a) quantitate changes in MGMT activity associated with alkylating agent-based chemotherapy; and (b)(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is characterized by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that actively pump a broad class of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs out of cancer cells. MDR is a major mechanism of treatment resistance in a variety of human tumors, and clinically applicable strategies to circumvent MDR remain to be(More)