John Shanklin

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In plants, changes in the levels of oleic acid (18:1), a major monounsaturated fatty acid (FA), results in the alteration of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses. This is evident in the Arabidopsis ssi2/fab2 mutant, which encodes a defective stearoyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturase (S-ACP-DES) and consequently accumulates(More)
The eukaryotic fatty acid desaturases are iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the NAD-(P)H- and O2-dependent introduction of double bonds into methylene-interrupted fatty acyl chains. Examination of deduced amino acid sequences for the membrane desaturases from mammals, fungi, insects, higher plants, and cyanobacteria has revealed three regions of(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in activating various plant defense responses, including expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and systemic acquired resistance. A critical positive regulator of the SA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis is encoded by the NPR1 gene. However, there is growing evidence that NPR1-independent pathways can(More)
The functionality, substrate specificity, and regiospecificity of enzymes typically evolve by the accumulation of mutations in the catalytic portion of the enzyme until new properties arise. However, emerging evidence suggests enzyme functionality can also be influenced by metabolic context. When the plastidial Arabidopsis 16:0Delta7 desaturase FAD5 (ADS3)(More)
Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1 delta 6cis), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed(More)
Microalgal oils have attracted much interest as potential feedstocks for renewable fuels, yet our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling oil biosynthesis and storage in microalgae is rather limited. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system, we show here that starch, rather than oil, is the dominant storage sink for reduced carbon(More)
Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen(More)
Hexadeca 7,10,13-trienoic acid (16:3Delta(7,10,13)) is one of the most abundant fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a functional component of thylakoid membranes, where it is found as an sn-2 ester of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The Arabidopsis fad5 mutant lacks activity of the plastidial palmitoyl-monogalactosyldiacylglycerol(More)
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases introduce double bonds at specific positions in fatty acids of defined chain lengths and are one of the major determinants of the monounsaturated fatty acid composition of vegetable oils. Mutagenesis studies were conducted to determine the structural basis for the substrate and double bond positional specificities(More)
A cDNA representing the plastid-encoded homolog of the prokaryotic ATP-dependent protease ClpP was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. ClpP and a previously isolated cDNA designated ClpC, encoding an ATPase related to proteins encoded by the ClpA/B gene family, were expressed in Escherichia coli. Antibodies(More)