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Over the last fifteen years there have been five pandemics of norovirus (NoV) associated gastroenteritis, and the period of stasis between each pandemic has been progressively shortening. NoV is classified into five genogroups, which can be further classified into 25 or more different human NoV genotypes; however, only one, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4),(More)
Current knowledge of RNA virus biodiversity is both biased and fragmentary, reflecting a focus on culturable or disease-causing agents. Here we profile the transcriptomes of over 220 invertebrate species sampled across nine animal phyla and report the discovery of 1,445 RNA viruses, including some that are sufficiently divergent to comprise new families.(More)
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis with most infections caused by GII.4 variants. To understand the evolutionary processes that contribute to the emergence of GII.4 variants, we examined the molecular epidemiology of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in Australia and New Zealand from 893 outbreaks between 2009 and 2012.(More)
To resolve the evolutionary history of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), we performed a genomic analysis of the viral stocks imported and released as a biocontrol measure in Australia, as well as a global phylogenetic analysis. Importantly, conflicts were identified between the sequences determined here and those previously published that may have(More)
BACKGROUND Over the last decade, four epidemics of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis have been reported in Australia. These epidemics were characterized by numerous outbreaks in institutional settings such as hospitals and nursing homes, as well as increases in requests for NoV testing in diagnostic centers. During 2007 and 2008, widespread outbreaks of(More)
Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis globally. Since 1996, NoV variants of a single genetic lineage, GII.4, have been associated with at least six pandemics of acute gastroenteritis and caused between 62 and 80% of all NoV outbreaks. The emergence of these novel GII.4 variants has been attributed to rapid evolution and antigenic(More)
Norovirus is an important human pathogen that is now recognized as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis globally. Six viral genogroups have been described, although only genogroups GI, GII, and GIV are known to infect humans, with the GII viruses most commonly identified in both outbreak and sporadic settings. In contrast, infections by GIV viruses(More)
Norovirus (NoV) is an emerging RNA virus that has been associated with global epidemics of gastroenteritis. Each global epidemic arises with the emergence of novel antigenic variants. While the majority of NoV infections are mild and self-limiting, in the young, elderly, and immunocompromised, severe and prolonged illness can result. As yet, there is no(More)
Norovirus (NoV) is the most common cause of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis, globally. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis in Singapore by classifying circulating NoV genotypes and genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) variants between September 2004 and February 2011. The temporal dominance(More)
UNLABELLED The introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand during the 1990s as a means of controlling feral rabbits is an important case study in viral emergence. Both epidemics are exceptional in that the founder viruses share an origin and the timing of their release is known, providing a unique opportunity to(More)