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Repressive nation-states have long monitored telecommunications to keep tabs on political dissent. The Internet and online social networks, however, pose novel technical challenges to this practice, even as they open up new domains for surveillance. We analyze an extensive collection of suspicious files and links targeting activists, opposition members, and(More)
Drug-naïve, non-deprived rats were trained to lever press for saccharin under fixed-ratio (FR) or variable-ratio (VR) schedules of reinforcement. Rats trained on the VR schedule in which saccharin reinforcement was not predicted by a fixed number of lever presses subsequently showed an enhanced locomotor response to a threshold amphetamine challenge(More)
On March 16th, 2015, the Chinese censorship apparatus employed a new tool, the " Great Cannon " , to engineer a denial-of-service attack on GreatFire.org, an organization dedicated to resisting China's censorship. We present a technical analysis of the attack and what it reveals about the Great Cannon's working, underscoring that in essence it consitutes a(More)
Civil society groups, which tend to use commodity tools and popular online platforms, are increasingly targeted by cyberattacks to disrupt their activities and steal their private information. Such cyberthreats deserve our attention, first, because they expose the default-insecure options in online platforms and, second, because addressing the most glaring(More)
Previous exposure to amphetamine attenuates its ability to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Because amphetamine, unlike emetic agents like LiCl, possesses appetitive properties that sensitize when it is administered repeatedly, the present study assessed the contribution of sensitization to this US-pre-exposure effect (US-PEE). It was found that not(More)
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