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A novel application of dynamic programming to the folding problem for RNA enables one to calculate the full equilibrium partition function for secondary structure and the probabilities of various substructures. In particular, both the partition function and the probabilities of all base pairs are computed by a recursive scheme of polynomial order N3 in the(More)
The topic addressed is that of combining self-constructing chemical systems with electronic computation to form unconventional embedded computation systems performing complex nano-scale chemical tasks autonomously. The hybrid route to complex programmable chemistry, and ultimately to artificial cells based on novel chemistry, requires a solution of the(More)
Statistical properties of RNA folding landscapes obtained by the partition function algorithm (McCaskill 1990) are investigated in detail. The pair correlation of free energies as a function of the Hamming distance is used as a measure for the ruggedness of the landscape. The calculation of the partition function contains information about the entire(More)
The concept of living technology-that is, technology that is based on the powerful core features of life-is explained and illustrated with examples from artificial life software, reconfigurable and evolvable hardware, autonomously self-reproducing robots, chemical protocells, and hybrid electronic-chemical systems. We define primary (secondary) living(More)
Recently, new types of coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification reactions for the investigation of in vitro evolution have been established that are based on the multi-enzyme 3SR reaction. Microstructured thin-film open bioreactors have been constructed in our laboratory to run these reactions spatially resolved in flow experiments. Artificial(More)
BACKGROUND A novel approach to the study of in vitro evolution is provided by the investigation of continuous, functionally coupled, amplifying systems. To date, in vitro evolution experiments have focused on issues of mutation and selection. Our work contributes to the new field of in vitro molecular ecology studies in which detailed information about the(More)