This article lists fourteen open problems in artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.
The topic addressed is that of combining self-constructing chemical systems with electronic computation to form unconventional embedded computation systems performing complex nano-scale chemical tasks autonomously. The hybrid route to complex programmable chemistry, and ultimately to artificial cells based on novel chemistry, requires a solution of the… (More)
The concept of living technology-that is, technology that is based on the powerful core features of life-is explained and illustrated with examples from artificial life software, reconfigurable and evolvable hardware, autonomously self-reproducing robots, chemical protocells, and hybrid electronic-chemical systems. We define primary (secondary) living… (More)
Recently, new types of coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification reactions for the investigation of in vitro evolution have been established that are based on the multi-enzyme 3SR reaction. Microstructured thin-film open bioreactors have been constructed in our laboratory to run these reactions spatially resolved in flow experiments. Artificial… (More)
Ligation is a form of chemical self-assembly that involves dynamic formation of strong covalent bonds in the presence of weak as-sociative forces. We study an extremely simple form of ligation by means of a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model extended to include the dynamic making and breaking of strong bonds, which we term dynamically bonding… (More)
Sentence: Self-assembly of genetically encoded units enables the evolution of inductive generalization in functional structures such as multiplier circuits. Abstract We propose that genetic encoding of self-assembling components greatly enhances the evolution of complex systems and provides an efficient platform for inductive generalization, i.e. the… (More)