John S. Hulme

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Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)--which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system--as candidates for primary determinants of risk(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 is associated with susceptibility to more common diseases than any other region of the human genome, including almost all disorders classified as autoimmune. In type 1 diabetes the major genetic susceptibility determinants have been mapped to the MHC class II genes HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 (refs 1-3),(More)
The monoclonal antibody (anti-IFA) raised (Pruss et al., 1981, Cell 27:419-428) against an intermediate filament antigen, which is widespread throughout phylogeny, has been shown here to cross-react with higher plants. On immunoblotting, anti-IFA cross-reacted with proteins in homogenates of carrot suspension cells and of meristematic cells from onion root(More)
The identification of the HLA class II, insulin (INS), CTLA-4 and PTPN22 genes as determinants of type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility indicates that fine tuning of the immune system is centrally involved in disease development. Some genes have been shown to affect several immune-mediated diseases. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that alleles of(More)
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently used in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products. Nevertheless, limited safety information is available for many NPs, especially in terms of their interactions with various binding proteins, leading to potential toxic effects. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs are included in the formulation of new products, such as(More)
Plant cells organize their growth by reinforcing side walls during interphase (causing them to elongate) and by positioning and orienting the cross wall at cytokinesis. In the first part of this presentation we review progress made in identifying different cytoskeletal components that underlie side walls and that are involved in the deposition of the cross(More)
As increasing variants of nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in various products, it has become apparent that size alone can no longer adequately explain the variety of generated toxic profiles. Recent studies with NPs have suggested that various sizes of NPs could determine in vitro toxicity. In an attempt to address concerns regarding neurotoxicity of(More)
One strategy to help identify susceptibility genes for complex, multifactorial diseases is to map disease loci in a representative animal model of the disorder. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes. Linkage and congenic strain analyses have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, which have been(More)
Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an(More)
The regeneration of plants from leaf explants of a number of potato cultivars using a number of published one-, two- and three-step methods was assessed. A method using a pretreatment with high levels of auxin and cytokinin coupled with silver thiosulphate in the regeneration medium proved the most rapid and efficient for the eight cultivars examined.