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Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)--which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system--as candidates for primary determinants of risk(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 is associated with susceptibility to more common diseases than any other region of the human genome, including almost all disorders classified as autoimmune. In type 1 diabetes the major genetic susceptibility determinants have been mapped to the MHC class II genes HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 (refs 1-3),(More)
The monoclonal antibody (anti-IFA) raised (Pruss et al., 1981, Cell 27:419-428) against an intermediate filament antigen, which is widespread throughout phylogeny, has been shown here to cross-react with higher plants. On immunoblotting, anti-IFA cross-reacted with proteins in homogenates of carrot suspension cells and of meristematic cells from onion root(More)
Plant cells organize their growth by reinforcing side walls during interphase (causing them to elongate) and by positioning and orienting the cross wall at cytokinesis. In the first part of this presentation we review progress made in identifying different cytoskeletal components that underlie side walls and that are involved in the deposition of the cross(More)
The identification of the HLA class II, insulin (INS), CTLA-4 and PTPN22 genes as determinants of type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility indicates that fine tuning of the immune system is centrally involved in disease development. Some genes have been shown to affect several immune-mediated diseases. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that alleles of(More)
As increasing variants of nanoparticles (NPs) are being used in various products, it has become apparent that size alone can no longer adequately explain the variety of generated toxic profiles. Recent studies with NPs have suggested that various sizes of NPs could determine in vitro toxicity. In an attempt to address concerns regarding neurotoxicity of(More)
Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently used in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products. Nevertheless, limited safety information is available for many NPs, especially in terms of their interactions with various binding proteins, leading to potential toxic effects. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs are included in the formulation of new products, such as(More)
One strategy to help identify susceptibility genes for complex, multifactorial diseases is to map disease loci in a representative animal model of the disorder. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model for human type 1 diabetes. Linkage and congenic strain analyses have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, which have been(More)
The regeneration of plants from leaf explants of a number of potato cultivars using a number of published one-, two- and three-step methods was assessed. A method using a pretreatment with high levels of auxin and cytokinin coupled with silver thiosulphate in the regeneration medium proved the most rapid and efficient for the eight cultivars examined.
Prior data associating the expression of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) with type 1 diabetes, its critical function in lymphocytes, and the linkage of the region to diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model make LCK a premier candidate for a susceptibility gene. Resequencing of LCK in 32 individuals detected seven single(More)