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BACKGROUND Valvular heart diseases are not usually regarded as a major public-health problem. Our aim was to assess their prevalence and effect on overall survival in the general population. METHODS We pooled population-based studies to obtain data for 11 911 randomly selected adults from the general population who had been assessed prospectively with(More)
IMPORTANCE Whether people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with uninfected people is not clear. Without demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected comparators and without uniformly measured clinical data on risk factors and fatal and nonfatal AMI events, any(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate prospectively whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and inflammation play a role in the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality risk associated with depression. METHODS Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 907; mean age, 71.3 ± 4.6 years; 59.1% women) were evaluated for ANS indices(More)
AIMS B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. However, their risk stratification abilities in the broad community remain uncertain. We sought to improve risk stratification for AF using biomarker information. METHODS AND RESULTS We ascertained AF incidence in 18 556 Whites and African Americans(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the ability of echocardiographic indices of systolic and diastolic function to predict incident congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND Noninvasive indices of subclinical systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction that can be used to identify patients in a transition phase between normal cardiac function and clinical CHF would(More)
BACKGROUND Frail health in old age has been conceptualized as a loss of physiologic reserve associated with loss of lean mass, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and immune dysfunction. Little work has been done to define frailty and describe the underlying pathophysiology. METHODS Frailty status was defined in participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study(More)
The relationship between depressive symptoms and coronary artery disease (CAD) is mediated in part by immune system parameters. This review describes research on the psychoneuroimmunological pathways accounting for the association between depression and CAD, and addresses conceptual and methodological issues. Relationships between central nervous system(More)
The present study assessed the acute effects of mental stress (mental arithmetic) on serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and the extent to which stress-induced changes are attributable to decreases in plasma volume. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, and LDL-C(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac rhythm abnormality, is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide levels have been associated with the risk of heart failure, AF, and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS The relation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic(More)