The general dentist's ability to perform an anesthesia block of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be very beneficial, especially when trying to diagnose or treat patients with temporomandibular dysfunction who have joint and/or muscle pain. There are three common types of internal joint disorders--orthopedic, inflammatory, and degenerative--producing… (More)
The masseter muscle is an integral part of the oral facial complex and one of the muscles of mastication. It functions with the other masticatory muscles in moving and posturing the mandible and in verbalizing, eating and swallowing. When a patient has temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) or a myogenic disorder, the integrity of the masseter muscle can be… (More)
Subjects with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) occasionally present with additional orofacial pain complaints. These can arise from dysfunction in teeth, bones, ligaments, tendons, nerves, and other structures. In this retrospective study, a group of 501 consecutive subjects with TMD complaints were evaluated for the presence of trigeminal neuritis.… (More)
Diagnosing and managing neuropathic pain with associated sensory aberrations can be aggravating and frustrating for both the dentist and the patient. The teeth and intraoral and extraoral tissues can be affected if neuritis is located in the maxillary or mandibular nerve branches. Dentists should be aware of a neuritic etiology for tooth pain because an… (More)
Orofacial sensory changes are uncommon complaints that can coexist with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). The location, character, and intensity vary greatly with each individual and symptom fluctuation is not unusual for any patient. The etiology of orofacial sensory changes may be related to either local or systemic factors. Several investigators have… (More)
Iontophoresis is effective in anesthesia blocking for evaluating the source of pain. When extraoral anesthesia is required, the author has discovered there is less resistance from the patient if iontophoresis is offered as an alternative to needle injections in selected sites.
We checked to what extent the voltage-current relationship of a microelectrode is linear. In the linear domain we measured the impedance characteristic of the electrode. We measured the frequency response curve and the phase characteristic of the electrode and amplifier system.