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The maintenance of "public" or "common good" producers is a major question in the evolution of cooperation. Because nonproducers benefit from the shared resource without bearing its cost of production, they may proliferate faster than producers. We established a synthetic microbial system consisting of two Escherichia coli strains of common-good producers(More)
A fundamental problem in biology is understanding the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of altruistic behaviors. A well-recognized conceptual insight is provided by a general mathematical relation, Hamilton's rule. This rule can in principle be invoked to explain natural examples of cooperation, but measuring the variables that it involves is a(More)
Many studies involving interacting microorganisms would benefit from simple devices able to deposit cells in precisely defined patterns. We describe an inexpensive bacterial piezoelectric inkjet printer (adapted from the design of the POSaM oligonucleotide microarrayer) that can be used to "print out" different strains of bacteria or chemicals in small(More)
We describe DAGGER, an ab initio gene recognition program which combines the output of high dimensional signal sensors in an intuitive gene model based on directed acyclic graphs. In the first stage, candidate start, donor, acceptor, and stop sites are scored using the SNoW learning architecture. These sites are then used to generate a directed acyclic(More)
Many organisms respond to food deprivation by altering their pattern of movement, often in ways that appear to facilitate dispersal. While the behavior of the nematode C. elegans in the presence of attractants has been characterized, long-range movement in the absence of external stimuli has not been examined in this animal. Here we investigate the movement(More)
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