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An analysis of major U.S. crops shows that there is a large genetic potential for yield that is unrealized because of the need for better adaptation of the plants to the environments in which they are grown. Evidence from native populations suggests that high productivity can occur in these environments and that opportunities for improving production in(More)
Female and male rats were trained to discriminate the kappa opioid agonist (5alpha,7alpha,8beta)-(-)-N-methyl-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl) -1-oxaspiro(4,5)dec-8-yl]benzeneacetamide (U69,593, 0.13 mg/kg SC) from vehicle using a FR-10 schedule of food reinforcement. Female rats took significantly longer than males to acquire the discrimination (66.9 vs. 44.1 sessions,(More)
In many situations, organisms respond to stimuli by altering the activity of large numbers of genes. Among these, certain ones are likely to control the phenotype while others play a secondary role or are passively altered without directly affecting the phenotype. Identifying the controlling genes has proven difficult. However, in a few instances, it has(More)
The antinociceptive and locomotor effects of microinjecting morphine into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) of male and female rats was assessed. Male rats showed greater antinociception than female rats at all doses and times following morphine administration. Male, but not female rats, also showed a dose dependent decrease in locomotion. These data(More)
Pectin is a normal constituent of cell walls of green plants. When supplied externally to live cells or walls isolated from the large-celled green alga Chara corallina, pectin removes calcium from load-bearing cross-links in the wall, loosening the structure and allowing it to deform more rapidly under the action of turgor pressure. New Ca(2+) enters the(More)
The effects of cations and abscisic acid on chloroplast activity in guard cells of Vicia faba were investigated by analysis of the transient of chlorophyll a fluorescence. When epidermal strips containing guard cells as the only living cells were incubated in water and illuminated with strong light, chlorophyll a fluorescence rose rapidly to a high(More)
(1) Photophosphorylation, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities of isolated chloroplasts were inhibited 55--65% when the chemical potential of water was decreased by dehydrating leaves to water potentials (psi w) of --25 bars before isolation of the plastids. The inhibition could be reversed in vivo by rehydrating the leaves. (2) These losses in activity(More)
A fully automated laboratory-based measurement system for characterization of coil system parameters is presented. This method uses an inexpensive personal computer (PC)-controlled stepper motor positioning system in conjunction with a network/spectrum analyzer and an analog-to-digital converter (A/D) board that allows high resolution data acquisition in an(More)