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Rapid changes in turgor pressure (P:) and temperature (T:) are giving new information about the mechanisms of plant growth. In the present work, single internode cells of the large-celled alga Chara corallina were used as a model for plant growth. P was changed without altering the chemical environment of the wall while observing growth without elastic(More)
Plant reproduction is sensitive to water deficits, especially during the early phases when development may cease irreversibly even though the parent remains alive. Grain numbers decrease because of several developmental changes, especially ovary abortion in maize (Zea mays L.) or pollen sterility in small grains. In maize, the water deficits inhibit(More)
Plants enlarge mostly because the walls of certain cells enlarge, with accompanying input of wall constituents and other factors from the cytoplasm. However, the enlargement can occur without input, suggesting an uncertain relationship between cytoplasmic input and plant growth. Therefore, the role of the input was investigated by quantitatively comparing(More)
Recent work showed that polygalacturonate (pectate) chemistry controlled the growth rate of the large-celled alga Chara corallina when turgor pressure (P) was normal (about 0.5 MPa). The mechanism involved calcium withdrawal from the wall by newly supplied pectate acting as a chelator. But P itself can affect growth rate. Therefore, pectate chemistry was(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Around the time of anthesis, young ovary development in maize (Zea mays) is vulnerable to 2 or 3 d of water deficits that inhibit photosynthesis. Abortion can result, and fewer kernels are produced. A breakdown of stored ovary starch is associated with the abortion and was investigated in the present study by localizing the breakdown(More)
In many situations, organisms respond to stimuli by altering the activity of large numbers of genes. Among these, certain ones are likely to control the phenotype while others play a secondary role or are passively altered without directly affecting the phenotype. Identifying the controlling genes has proven difficult. However, in a few instances, it has(More)
Pectin is a normal constituent of cell walls of green plants. When supplied externally to live cells or walls isolated from the large-celled green alga Chara corallina, pectin removes calcium from load-bearing cross-links in the wall, loosening the structure and allowing it to deform more rapidly under the action of turgor pressure. New Ca(2+) enters the(More)
(1) Photophosphorylation, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities of isolated chloroplasts were inhibited 55--65% when the chemical potential of water was decreased by dehydrating leaves to water potentials (psi w) of --25 bars before isolation of the plastids. The inhibition could be reversed in vivo by rehydrating the leaves. (2) These losses in activity(More)
This study was undertaken to determine how photosynthesis tolerates desiccation in an intertidal alga Fucus vesiculosus L. and a terrestrial sunflower Helianthus annuus L. Photosynthetic O2 evolution generally was inhibited at low water potentials (psiw) but more in sunflower leaves than in Fucus fronds at the same psiw. As psiw decreased, less carbon(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Water limitations can inhibit photosynthesis and change gene expression in ways that diminish or prevent reproductive development in plants. Sucrose fed to the plants can reverse the effects. To test whether the reversal acts generally by replacing the losses from photosynthesis, sucrose was fed to the stems of shaded maize plants (Zea(More)