John S. Boyer

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Plant reproduction is sensitive to water deficits, especially during the early phases when development may cease irreversibly even though the parent remains alive. Grain numbers decrease because of several developmental changes, especially ovary abortion in maize (Zea mays L.) or pollen sterility in small grains. In maize, the water deficits inhibit(More)
In many situations, organisms respond to stimuli by altering the activity of large numbers of genes. Among these, certain ones are likely to control the phenotype while others play a secondary role or are passively altered without directly affecting the phenotype. Identifying the controlling genes has proven difficult. However, in a few instances, it has(More)
Pectin is a normal constituent of cell walls of green plants. When supplied externally to live cells or walls isolated from the large-celled green alga Chara corallina, pectin removes calcium from load-bearing cross-links in the wall, loosening the structure and allowing it to deform more rapidly under the action of turgor pressure. New Ca(2+) enters the(More)
The effects of cations and abscisic acid on chloroplast activity in guard cells of Vicia faba were investigated by analysis of the transient of chlorophyll a fluorescence. When epidermal strips containing guard cells as the only living cells were incubated in water and illuminated with strong light, chlorophyll a fluorescence rose rapidly to a high(More)
(1) Photophosphorylation, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase activities of isolated chloroplasts were inhibited 55--65% when the chemical potential of water was decreased by dehydrating leaves to water potentials (psi w) of --25 bars before isolation of the plastids. The inhibition could be reversed in vivo by rehydrating the leaves. (2) These losses in activity(More)
Enzyme-less chemistry appears to control the growth rate of the green alga Chara corallina. The chemistry occurs in the wall where a calcium pectate cycle determines both the rate of wall enlargement and the rate of pectate deposition into the wall. The process is the first to indicate that a wall polymer can control how a plant cell enlarges after(More)
Water vapor over-estimates the CO 2 entering leaves during photosynthesis because the cuticle and epidermis transmit more water vapor than CO 2 . Direct measurements of internal CO 2 concentrations may be preferred. The CO2 concentration inside leaves (c i) is typically calculated from the relationship between water vapor diffusing out while CO2 diffuses(More)
Zimmermann et al. published a Tansley review that criticizes the work of many scientists involved in the study of long-distance water transport in plants (Zimmermann et al. , 2004). Specifically, the review attempts to 'show that the arguments of the proponents of the Cohesion Theory are completely misleading'. We, the undersigned, believe that this review(More)
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