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Research on depression is often conducted with analogue samples that have been divided into depressed and nondepressed groups using a cutoff score on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Although the relative merits of different cut scores are frequently debated, no study has yet determined whether the use of any cut score is valid, that is, whether the(More)
Despite decades of debate, important questions about the boundaries that separate psychological disorder from normality and that distinguish 1 disorder from another remain largely unanswered. These issues pose empirical questions that may be addressed by assessing the latent structure of psychopathological constructs. Because these constructs are likely to(More)
Researchers have described 2 types of worriers, normal and pathological, who differ in the frequency, intensity, and controllability of their worry experiences. Although normal and pathological worry are generally treated as separate though related phenomena, no study has tested for separateness against the alternative hypothesis that all worry exists along(More)
Researchers and practitioners have long debated the structural nature of mental disorders. Until recently, arguments favoring categorical or dimensional conceptualizations have been based primarily on theoretical speculation and indirect empirical evidence. Within the depression literature, methodological limitations of past studies have hindered their(More)
Meehl's taxometric method was developed to distinguish categorical and continuous constructs. However, taxometric output can be difficult to interpret because expected results for realistic data conditions and differing procedural implementations have not been derived analytically or studied through rigorous simulations. By applying bootstrap methodology,(More)
Calculating and reporting appropriate measures of effect size are becoming standard practice in psychological research. One of the most common scenarios encountered involves the comparison of 2 groups, which includes research designs that are experimental (e.g., random assignment to treatment vs. placebo conditions) and nonexperimental (e.g., testing for(More)
Previous Monte Carlo simulations and empirical trials have demonstrated the power with which taxometric procedures distinguish between taxonic (categorical) and dimensional (continuous) latent structures. However, questions have been raised about results obtained using procedures modified to accommodate dichotomous indicators. The present investigation(More)
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for the actual(More)
Determining whether individuals belong to different latent classes (taxa) or vary along one or more latent factors (dimensions) has implications for assessment. For example, no instrument can simultaneously maximize the efficiency of categorical and continuous measurement. Methods such as taxometric analysis can test the relative fit of taxonic and(More)
On the basis of taxometric analyses of data sets that they created to pose interpretive challenges, S. R. H. Beach, N. Amir, and J. J. Bau (2005) cautioned that using comparison data simulated by J. Ruscio's programs can lead to inaccurate conclusions. Careful examination of S. R. H. Beach et al.'s methods and results plus reanalysis of their data fails to(More)