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BACKGROUND One of the significant tumor immune escape mechanisms and substantial barrier for successful immunotherapy is tumor-mediated inhibition of immune response through cell-to-cell or receptor/ligand interactions. Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) interaction with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, is one of the important strategies that many tumors(More)
HPV infection is a direct cause of neoplasia and malignancy. Cellular immunologic activity against cells expressing HPV E6 and E7 is sufficient to eliminate the presence of dysplastic or neoplastic tissue driven by HPV infection. Live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes- (Lm-) based immunotherapy (ADXS11-001) has been developed for the treatment of(More)
Upoc Verizon iii Acknowledgements The author gratefully acknowledges the following people who reviewed and commented critically on the draft version of this report. Without their consideration, input, and encouragement, this study could not have been completed: These reviewers and the Program's Affiliates, however, are not responsible for or necessarily in(More)
While there has been significant progress in advancing novel immune therapies to the bedside, much more needs to be done to fully tap into the potential of the immune system. It has become increasingly clear that besides practical and operational challenges, the heterogeneity of cancer and the limited efficacy profile of current immunotherapy platforms are(More)
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