John Robinson

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We provide the first comprehensive study on the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) on the supply and demand of directors using broad sample evidence from more than 8,000 public companies as well as detailed analysis of smaller subsamples. Post-SOX boards are larger and more independent. Director workload and risk increased: audit committees meet more(More)
MOTIVATION Most phylogenetic methods assume that the sequences of nucleotides or amino acids have evolved under stationary, reversible and homogeneous conditions. When these assumptions are violated by the data, there is an increased probability of errors in the phylogenetic estimates. Methods to examine aligned sequences for these violations are available,(More)
U.S. corporations hold significant amounts of cash on their balance sheets, and these cash holdings have been justified in the existing empirical literature by transaction costs and precautionary motives. An additional explanation, considered in this study, is that U.S. multinational firms hold cash in their foreign subsidiaries because of the tax costs(More)
In February 2004 a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak erupted in British Columbia. Investigations indicated that the responsible HPAI H7N3 virus emerged suddenly from a low pathogenic precursor. Analysis of the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of the low and high pathogenic viruses isolated from the index farm revealed the only difference to be a 21(More)
Genome sequences of chicken (low pathogenic avian influenza [LPAI] and highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI]) and human isolates from a 2004 outbreak of H7N3 avian influenza in Canada showed a novel insertion in the HA0 cleavage site of the human and HPAI isolate. This insertion likely occurred by recombination between the hemagglutination and matrix(More)
-A theoretical treatment o./'the dynamics of a recurrent autoassociative network is given. The network consists o[randomly connected excitatoo' neurons, together with an inhibitoo, interneuron that sets their thresholds. Both the degree of connectivity between the neurons and the level of firing in the stored memories can be set arbitrarily. The memories(More)
A 16-month study was conducted on the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in drinking water in Indiana, U.S.A. Enumeration was conducted in source water, in various sites within a water treatment plant, and in the distribution system in both bulk water and biofilm, as well as in a simulated (annular reactors) drinking-water distribution system. Presumptive(More)
Emerging infectious diseases threaten naïve host populations with extinction. Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians, is caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and has been linked to global declines in amphibians. We monitored the prevalence of Bd for four years in the Northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens,(More)