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The value of theoretical analyses in user interface design has been hotly debated. All sides agree that it is difficult to apply current theoretical models within the constraints of real-world development projects. We attack this problem in the context of bringing the theoretical ideas within a model of exploratory learning [19] to bear on the evaluation of(More)
This paper presents a new methodology for performing theory-based evaluations of user interface designs early in the design cycle. The methodology is an adaptation of the design walkthrough techniques that have been used for many years in the software engineering community. Traditional walkthroughs involve hand simulation of sections of code to ensure that(More)
Methods for studying user behavior in HCI can be informally divided into two approaches: experimental psychology in the laboratory and observations in the workplace. The first approach has been faulted for providing results that have little effect on system usability, while the second can often be accused of yielding primarily anecdotal data that do not(More)
When users of interactive computers must work with new software without formal training , they rely on strategies for ''exploratory learning''. These include trial and error , asking for help from other users , and looking for information in printed and on-line documentation. This paper describes a cognitive model of exploratory learning , which covers both(More)
2 Summary The programming walkthrough is a method for assessing how easy or hard it will be for users to write programs in a programming language. It is intended to enable language designers to identify problems early in design and to help them choose among alternative designs. We describe the method and present experience in applying it in four language(More)
The cognitive walkthrough is a technique for evaluating the design of a user interface, with speciaJ attention to how well the interface supports " exploratory learning, " i.e., first-time use without formal training. The evaluation can be performed by the system's designers in the e,arly stages of design, before empirical user testing is possible. Early(More)
Traditional programming language design has focussed on efficiency and expressiveness, with minimal attention to the ease with which a programmer can translate task requirements into statements in the language, a characteristic we call " facility. " The programming walkthrough is a method for assessing the facility of a language design before(More)
Users who have worked with just one or two pieces of application software on a computer system are often faced with the need to use a new piece of software on the same system. Consistency between program interfaces is intended to make the new program easier to learn in this situation, but how " consistency " should be defined is not always clear. We present(More)