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The value of theoretical analyses in user interface design has been hotly debated. All sides agree that it is difficult to apply current theoretical models within the constraints of real-world development projects. We attack this problem in the context of bringing the theoretical ideas within a model of exploratory learning [19] to bear on the evaluation of(More)
This paper presents a new methodology for performing theory-based evaluations of user interface designs early in the design cycle. The methodology is an adaptation of the design walkthrough techniques that have been used for many years in the software engineering community. Traditional walkthroughs involve hand simulation of sections of code to ensure that(More)
Methods for studying user behavior in HCI can be informally divided into two approaches: experimental psychology in the laboratory and observations in the workplace. The first approach has been faulted for providing results that have little effect on system usability, while the second can often be accused of yielding primarily anecdotal data that do not(More)
When users of interactive computers must work with new software without formal training , they rely on strategies for ''exploratory learning''. These include trial and error , asking for help from other users , and looking for information in printed and on-line documentation. This paper describes a cognitive model of exploratory learning , which covers both(More)
The cognitive walkthrough is a technique for evaluating the design of a user interface, with speciaJ attention to how well the interface supports " exploratory learning, " i.e., first-time use without formal training. The evaluation can be performed by the system's designers in the e,arly stages of design, before empirical user testing is possible. Early(More)
Traditional programming language design has focussed on efficiency and expressiveness, with minimal attention to the ease with which a programmer can translate task requirements into statements in the language, a characteristic we call " facility. " The programming walkthrough is a method for assessing the facility of a language design before(More)
Programmable design environments (PDEs) are computational environments that integrate the conceptual frameworks and components of(a) design environments and (b) programmable applications. The integration of these two approaches provides elements (such as software " critics " and " query-able objects ") that assist users in learning both The application and(More)
The cognitive walkthrough is a new method for assessing the usability of a system and assigning causes to usability problems early in the design process. Early versions of the walkthrough suffered from tedious and repetitious paperwork. To address this problem we developed an automated prompting system, which reduces the method's overhead and focuses the(More)