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Thresholds for the detection (at p = 0.67 correct) of the direction of discrete linear movements in the horizontal plane, having a cosine bell velocity trajectory and duration of 3 s, were determined in 24 subjects. Thresholds in the Z body axis (mean 0.154 m X s-2) were significantly higher than thresholds for movement in the X (mean 0.063 m X s-2) and Y(More)
BACKGROUND Low frequency translational oscillation can provoke motion sickness in land vehicles, ships and aircraft. HYPOTHESIS Nauseogenicity should decrease towards the higher frequencies. METHODS Some 12 subjects were exposed to horizontal sinusoidal motion (3.6 m.s-2 peak) at four different frequencies 0.35, 0.50, 0.70, and 1.00 Hz, at 1-week(More)
Cadaveric lumbar intervertebral joints were subjected to physiologic loads to simulate flexion. The resistance to bending was measured first with the joint intact and again after cutting in turn through the supraspinous/interspinous ligaments, the ligamentum flavum, and the capsular ligaments of the apophyseal joints. In this way the part played by each of(More)
AIMS Hyoscine (scopolamine), which is effective in the prophylaxis of motion sickness, shows similar binding affinities to all of the five known muscarinic receptor sub-types. The effectiveness of hyoscine was compared with zamifenacin (UK-76654), which binds selectively to the muscarinic M3 and m5 receptors. METHODS Eighteen subjects received hyoscine(More)
BACKGROUND A recent experiment demonstrated that low frequency linear oscillation through the Z-axis of the body was more nauseogenic when applied in the vertical direction, with subjects seated upright, than in the horizontal direction, with subjects supine. HYPOTHESIS The nauseogenicity of low frequency linear oscillatory motion is dependent on(More)
Abnormalities in the hallux valgus foot and changes after surgery were investigated by measuring the distribuiion of load on the foot in walking. Hallux valgus was associated with reduced load imposed on the toes, and on the medial side of the forefoot, compared with a large sample of healthy feet. Abnormalities correlated with the degree of the deformity.(More)
Values for the compressive breaking load of lumbar vertebrae at physiological strain rates show enormous scatter across the population, ranging from 0.8 kN to nearly 16 kN. Increase in strength was found at faster strain rates, but differences in compressive strength between upper and lower lumbar vertebrae were not significant. Hydraulic strengthening does(More)
Specimens of femoral cortical bone from normal subjects and from patients with osteoporosis were mechanically tested in tension to destruction. The osteoporotic bone showed less strength and less stiffness than the normal bone; these reductions are related to the increased cavity area in osteoporosis. Further, the osteoporotic bone is not able to absorb as(More)