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Tremorgenic indole alkaloids produce neurological disorders (e.g., staggers syndromes) in ruminants. The mode of action of these fungal mycotoxins is not understood but may be related to their known effects on neurotransmitter release. To determine whether these effects could be due to inhibition of K+ channels, the interaction of various indole diterpenes(More)
An inhibitor of the high conductance, Ca2(+)-activated K+ channel (PK,Ca) has been purified to homogeneity from venom of the scorpion Buthus tamulus by a combination of ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. This peptide, which has been named iberiotoxin (IbTX), is one of two minor components of the crude venom which blocks PK,Ca. IbTX consists of(More)
Tension outputs were measured in skinned crayfish muscle fibers exposed to solutions variously buffered for both Mg-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Ca. Two types of data are shown, relating tension and substrate concentration with different levels of Ca present, or tension and calcium concentration at different levels of substrate. The data are fitted by(More)
A "skinning%" procedure is described for irreversibly disrupting the sarcolemmal membrane of human skeletal muscle and allowing calcium and other diffusible solutes (such as adenosine triphosphate) access to the myofilament space. Single skinned fibers give isometric tensions of about 1.5 kilograms per square centimeter when exposed to ionized calcium event(More)
The control of tension in skinned fibers by Mg-ATP and Ca described in previous publications has been studied at high substrate concentrations over a wide range of temperature and salt concentration. Curves of tension versus pCa shift systemically to the right as [Mg-ATP] increases. The maximum Ca-activated tension of a skinned fiber declines at(More)
Charybdotoxin (ChTX), a K+ channel blocker, depolarizes human peripheral T lymphocytes and renders them insensitive to activation by mitogen. We observed four types of K+ channels in human T cells: one voltage-activated, and three Ca(2+)-activated. To discern the mechanism by which ChTX depolarizes T cells, we examined the sensitivity of both the(More)
Charybdotoxin (ChTX), a protein present in the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus var. hebraeus, has been purified to homogeneity by a combination of ion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, and complete amino acid sequence determination of the pure protein reveal that it consists of(More)
The nonionic detergent Brij 58 eliminates irreversibly the capability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skinned crayfish muscle fibers to sequester Ca and to release it under appropriate stimulation. In contrast to deoxycholate (DOC) which causes an irreversible diminution of tension as well, Brij 58 does not affect the contractile proteins. Comparison(More)
Precipitation of Ca oxalate in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of chemically skinned rabbit psoas fibers caused an increase in light scattering which was proportional to the amount of Ca accumulated per unit fiber volume. The increase in scattering was used to measure net accumulation rates and steady-state Ca capacities of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in single(More)
Oxalate-supported Ca accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of chemically skinned mammalian skeletal muscle fibers is activated by MgATP and Ca2+ and partially inhibited by caffeine. Inhibition by caffeine is greatest when Ca2+ exceeds 0.3 to 0.4 microM, when free ATP exceeds 0.8 to 1 mM, and when the inhibitor is present from the beginning of the(More)