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Morphogen gradients contribute to pattern formation by determining positional information in morphogenetic fields. Interpretation of positional information is thought to rely on direct, concentration-threshold-dependent mechanisms for establishing multiple differential domains of target gene expression. In Drosophila, maternal gradients establish the(More)
Developing embryos exhibit a robust capability to reduce phenotypic variations that occur naturally or as a result of experimental manipulation. This reduction in variation occurs by an epigenetic mechanism called canalization, a phenomenon which has resisted understanding because of a lack of necessary molecular data and of appropriate gene regulation(More)
Here we characterize the expression of the full system of genes which control the segmentation morphogenetic field of Drosophila at the protein level in one dimension. The data used for this characterization are quantitative with cellular resolution in space and about 6 min in time. We present the full quantitative profiles of all 14 segmentation genes(More)
 We describe a method for rapidly raising a panel of high quality polyclonal antibodies from bacterially expressed proteins. Approximately 12/3 days of preparation is required per protein. One step that speeds up the procedure is the visualization of purified bands by precipitated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Antigenicity of the purified recombinant(More)
In this paper we analyze the formation of stripes of expression of the pair-rule gene eve. We identify detailed mechanisms which control the formation of stripes 2-5. Each stripe is formed as a result of generalized activation by bcd and ubiquitous transcription factors combined with localized repression by gap genes. Each of the eight stripe borders of(More)
Genetic studies have revealed that segment determination in Drosophila melanogaster is based on hierarchical regulatory interactions among maternal coordinate and zygotic segmentation genes. The gap gene system constitutes the most upstream zygotic layer of this regulatory hierarchy, responsible for the initial interpretation of positional information(More)
Here we present a quantitative and predictive model of the transcriptional readout of the proximal 1.7 kb of the control region of the Drosophila melanogaster gene even skipped (eve). The model is based on the positions and sequence of individual binding sites on the DNA and quantitative, time-resolved expression data at cellular resolution. These data(More)
We present a phenomenological modeling framework for development. Our purpose is to provide a systematic method for discovering and expressing correlations in experimental data on gene expression and other developmental processes. The modeling framework is based on a connectionist or "neural net" dynamics for biochemical regulators, coupled to "grammatical(More)
A fundamental problem in functional genomics is to determine the structure and dynamics of genetic networks based on expression data. We describe a new strategy for solving this problem and apply it to recently published data on early Drosophila melanogaster development. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than current fitting methods and allows us to(More)
The variation in the expression patterns of the gap genes in the blastoderm of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster reduces over time as a result of cross regulation between these genes, a fact that we have demonstrated in an accompanying article in PLoS Biology (see Manu et al., doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000049). This biologically essential process is an(More)