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BACKGROUND Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used since the 1950s in numerous commercial applications. Exposure of the general U.S. population to PFCs is widespread. Since 2002, the manufacturing practices for PFCs in the United States have changed considerably. OBJECTIVES We aimed to assess exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS),(More)
We measured the urinary monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in approximately 2,540 samples collected from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2000, who were greater than or equal to 6 years of age. We found detectable levels of metabolites monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in(More)
Phthalates are a group of industrial chemicals with many commercial uses, such as solvents, additives, and plasticizers. For example, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is added in varying amounts to certain plastics, such as polyvinyl chloride, to increase their flexibility. In humans, phthalates are metabolized to their respective monoesters, conjugated,(More)
BACKGROUND Triclosan is a synthetic chemical with broad antimicrobial activity that has been used extensively in consumer products, including personal care products, textiles, and plastic kitchenware. OBJECTIVES This study was designed to assess exposure to triclosan in a representative sample > or = 6 years of age of the U.S. general population from the(More)
Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, the(More)
BACKGROUND Parabens appear frequently as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, in pharmaceuticals, and in food and beverage processing. In vivo and in vitro studies have revealed weak estrogenic activity of some parabens. Widespread use has raised concerns about the potential human health risks associated with paraben exposure. OBJECTIVES(More)
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a complex mixture of predominantly nine-carbon branched-chain dialkyl phthalate isomers. Similar to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a widely used phthalate, DINP causes antiandrogenic effects on developing rodent male fetuses. Traditionally, assessment of human exposure to DINP has been done using monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) ,(More)
Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the most vexing problems for clinical cytogenetic laboratories and personnel time used for analysis at the microscope is one of the principle costs in cytogenetic laboratories. We use data collected from 26 cytogenetic laboratories to evaluate whether the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for minimum number of(More)