John Reichard

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Oxidative stress activates the transcription factor NRF2, which in turn binds cis-acting antioxidant response element (ARE) enhancers and induces expression of protective antioxidant genes. In contrast, the transcriptional repressor BACH1 binds ARE-like enhancers in cells naïve to oxidative stress and antagonizes NRF2 binding until it becomes inactivated by(More)
BACKGROUND The vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates cellular responses to environmental polycyclic and halogenated compounds. The naive receptor is believed to reside in an inactive cytosolic complex that translocates to the nucleus and induces transcription of xenobiotic detoxification genes(More)
Arsenic ranks as the number one toxic environmental contaminant. In humans, arsenic exposure is associated with various forms of cancer, cardiovascular and skin diseases, neuropathies of the central nervous system, and genotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Although a well recognized human carcinogen, arsenic itself is not a potent mutagen and has been thought(More)
Arsenic is a nonmutagenic human carcinogen that induces tumors through unknown mechanisms. A growing body of evidence suggests that its carcinogenicity results from epigenetic changes, particularly in DNA methylation. Changes in gene methylation status, mediated by arsenic, have been proposed to activate oncogene expression or silence tumor suppressor(More)
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are tumor promoters that cause liver cancer in rats and mice. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been implicated as a key component in this tumor promotion response. Despite extensive knowledge of the toxicology of dioxins, no mode of action (MOA) hypothesis for their tumorigenicity has been formally documented using(More)
The metabolism of CCl(4) initiates the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids producing alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The facile reactivity of these electrophilic aldehydic products suggests they play a role in the toxicity of compounds like CCl(4). To determine the rate at which(More)
Intracellular heme is a redox active molecule that can be detrimental to cells at high concentrations or under oxidizing conditions. To prevent accumulation, the inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) catalyzes degradation of heme. In the absence of elevated intracellular heme or oxidative stress, the basic region leucine zipper transcriptional regulator(More)
Liver fibrogenesis is dependent upon transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells to a profibrogenic phenotype. Prooxidant stress purportedly stimulates both an antioxidant response and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation with fibrogenic gene expression; however, mechanisms by which oxidative stress mediates stellate cell activation remain unclear. To(More)
Arsenic, first among the top environmentally hazardous substances, is associated with skin, lung, liver, kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer. Arsenic is also a cardiovascular and a central nervous system toxicant, and it has genotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide is used successfully in the treatment of acute promyelocytic(More)
TCDD and other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) have been classically considered as non-genotoxic compounds because they fail to be directly mutagenic in either bacteria or most in vitro assay systems. They do so in spite of having repeatedly been linked to oxidative stress and to mutagenic and carcinogenic(More)