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Conventional descriptions of the pattern and process of human entry into the New World from Asia are incomplete and controversial. In order to gain an evolutionary insight into this process, we have sequenced the control region of mtDNA in samples of contemporary tribal populations of eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Greenland and have compared them with those(More)
In addition to their well known roles within cells, purine nucleotides such as adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine 5' triphosphate (GTP), nucleosides such as adenosine and guanosine and bases, such as adenine and guanine and their metabolic products xanthine and hypoxanthine are released into the extracellular space where they act as intercellular(More)
The biochemical properties of the electrically excitable sodium channels in the electroplaque of Electrophorus electricus were investigated using tritiated tetrodotoxin (TTX) as a specific membrane probe. Membrane fragments from the electroplaque were isolated essentially by differential centrifugation and characterized with respect to the plasma membrane(More)
Hexactinellid sponges are often considered to be the most ancient metazoans. Lipid biomarkers from 23 species were studied for information on their phylogenetic properties, particularly their disputed relation to the two other sponge classes (Demospongiae, Calcarea). The most prominent lipid compounds in the Hexactinellida comprise C28 to C32 polyenoic(More)
BACKGROUND Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions(More)
9-(Dicyanovinyl)julolidine (DCVJ) is a fluorescent dye whose intramolecular rotational relaxation is solvent dependent. Since its quantum yield increases with decreasing free volume, this molecule has been very useful in monitoring synthetic polymer reactions and measuring local microviscosity changes in phospholipid bilayers [Loutfy, R. O. (1986) Pure(More)
The Asian-specific 9-bp deletion between the genes for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II and lysine transfer RNA has been used to trace aboriginal human movements out of Southeast Asia and into portions of the South Pacific. Although it has been used to estimate the number of independent lineages that occur in the New World, it has not been studied in(More)
Marine sediments and sponges may show steep variations in redox potential, providing niches for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Geodia spp. and sediment specimens from the Straits of Florida were fixed using paraformaldehyde and 95% ethanol (v/v) for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, homogenates of sponge and sediment(More)
Microcolin A [1] and microcolin B [2] are new immunosuppressive lipopeptides isolated from a Venezuelan sample of the blue-green alga Lyngbya majuscula. The microcolins are potent inhibitors of the murine mixed lymphocyte response and murine P-388 leukemia in vitro. Isolation and structure elucidation of 1 and 2 by nmr, mass spectral, and chemical methods(More)
The marine sponge Axinella corrugata is being developed as a model organism for in vitro marine invertebrate research. Molecular genetics methods such as DNA fingerprinting [amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP)] and single-locus DNA sequence analyses were applied to this model to meet the primary(More)