John Reader

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Endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels express many mechanosensors, including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), that convert mechanical force into biochemical signals. While it is accepted that mechanical stresses and the mechanical properties of ECs regulate vessel health, the relationship between force and biological response(More)
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases--enzymes that catalyze the first step of protein synthesis--in mammalian cells are now known to have expanded functions, including activities in signal transduction pathways, such as those for angiogenesis and inflammation. The native synthetases themselves are procytokines, having no signal transduction activities. After(More)
Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin(More)
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are central players in the protein translation machinery and as such are prominent targets for a large number of natural and synthetic antibiotics. This review focuses on the role of tRNAs in bacterial antibiosis. We will discuss examples of antibiotics that target multiple stages in tRNA biology from tRNA biogenesis and modification,(More)
A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that(More)
Fibronectin (FN) assembly and fibrillogenesis are critically important in both development and the adult organism, but their importance in vascular functions is not fully understood. Here we identify a novel pathway by which haemodynamic forces regulate FN assembly and fibrillogenesis during vascular remodelling. Induction of disturbed shear stress in vivo(More)
Antibiotic-producing microbes evolved self-resistance mechanisms to avoid suicide. The biocontrol Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 secretes the Trojan Horse antibiotic agrocin 84 that is selectively transported into the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens and processed into the toxin TM84. We previously showed that TM84 employs a unique tRNA-dependent mechanism to(More)
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