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  • Influence
The Reputational Penalties for Environmental Violations: Empirical Evidence*
This paper examines the sizes of the fines, damage awards, remediation costs, and market value losses imposed on companies that violate environmental regulations. Firms that violate environmentalExpand
Crime, Deterrence, and Right‐to‐Carry Concealed Handguns
Using cross‐sectional time‐series data for U.S. counties from 1977 to 1992, we find that allowing citizens to carry concealed weapons deters violent crimes, without increasing accidental deaths. IfExpand
Did Women's Suffrage Change the Size and Scope of Government?
This paper examines the growth of government during this century as a result of giving women the right to vote. Using cross‐sectional time‐series data for 1870–1940, we examine state governmentExpand
Have Changing Liability Rules Compensated Workers Twice for Occupational Hazards? Earnings Premiums and Cancer Risks
During the last couple of decades, courts have intervened in employment relationships by allowing employees to circumvent the workers' compensation liability restrictions. Recent papers point toExpand
On the Determinants and Importance of Punitive Damage Awards*
We examine several theoretical and empirical issues concerning punitive damage awards and their importance to business. First, we argue that previous justifications of punitive damage awards ignoreExpand
Safe‐Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime*
It is frequently assumed that safe‐storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates is ignored. We find no support that safe‐storage lawsExpand
Do Campaign Donations Alter How a Politician Votes? Or, Do Donors Support Candidates Who Value the Same Things That They Do?1
Despite all the work on how campaign donations influence a politician's behavior, the nagging question of whether contributions alter how the politician votes or whether these contributionsExpand
Public Schooling, Indoctrination, and Totalitarianism
Governments use public education and public ownership of the media to control the information that their citizens receive. More totalitarian governments as well as those with larger wealth transfersExpand
The Concealed‐Handgun Debate
Dan A. Black and Daniel S. Nagin state that my article with David Mustard assumes that the effect of concealed‐handgun laws is constant over time, that the effect is the same across states, that theExpand
Term limits and electoral competitiveness: Evidence from California's state legislative races
California's legislative term limits have dramatically reduced campaign expenditures. Real expenditures during the three general elections after the term limits initiative passed in 1990 were lowerExpand