Biases in social comparative judgments: the role of nonmotivated factors in above-average and comparative-optimism effects.
A 3-stage model for understanding how people make comparative judgments is introduced, various nonmotivational factors can influence the 3 stages of the comparative judgment process are described, and several unresolved issues are discussed.
Conservatives are happier than liberals, but why? Political ideology, personality, and life satisfaction
Egocentrism, Event Frequency, and Comparative Optimism: When what Happens Frequently is “More Likely to Happen to Me”
- John R. Chambers, P. Windschitl, J. Suls
- PsychologyPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
- 1 November 2003
Three studies investigated the role of nonmotivated egocentric processes in comparative optimism (and pessimism) and found comparative estimates were related to the perceived frequency of events, independent of the events' perceived desirability and controllability.
Ideology and Prejudice
Three studies tested whether prejudice derives from perceived similarities and dissimilarities in political ideologies and found symmetrical preferences, with liberals and conservatives each liking attitudinally similar targets more than dissimilar targets.
Perceiving Political Polarization in the United States
- Jacob Westfall, Leaf Van Boven, John R. Chambers, C. Judd
- Political SciencePerspectives on Psychological Science
- 1 March 2015
It is suggested that people perceive greater political polarization when they estimate the attitudes of those categorized as being in the “opposing group”; identify strongly as either Democrat or Republican; and hold relatively extreme partisan attitudes—particularly when those partisan attitudes align with their own partisan political identity.
Perceptions of U.S. Social Mobility Are Divided (and Distorted) Along Ideological Lines
Overall, participants underestimated current mobility and erroneously concluded that mobility has declined over the past four decades, and these misperceptions were more pronounced among politically liberal participants than among politically moderate or conservative ones.
The dud-alternative effect in likelihood judgment.
6 experiments demonstrate that the presence of implausible alternatives (duds) often increases the judged likelihood of a focal outcome, and this dud-alternative effect was detected for judgments involving uncertainty about trivia facts and stochastic events.
Better Off Than We Know
It is found that Americans not only overestimated the rise of income inequality over time, but also underestimated average incomes, suggesting that economic conditions in America are more favorable than people seem to realize.
The Ideological-Conflict Hypothesis
- M. Brandt, Christine Reyna, John R. Chambers, Jarret T. Crawford, Geoffrey Wetherell
- 1 February 2014
Decades of research in social and political psychology have demonstrated that political conservatives appear more intolerant toward a variety of groups than do political liberals. Recent work from…
The Rational Side of Egocentrism in Social Comparisons
Prior work has found that when people compare themselves with others they egocentrically focus on their own strengths and contributions and pay less attention to strengths and contributions of the…