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collection of data which will facilitate comparisons among projects. The standards identified should permit any manager to develop an appropriate monitoring or research program. Data generated from these programs will have a number of valuable uses beyond local assessments. Population trends from National Parks and other protected areas will permit(More)
In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition,(More)
Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we determined that most neotropical migrant bird species that breed in forests of the eastern United States and Canada have recently (1978-1987) declined in abundance after a period of stable or increasing populations. Most permanent residents and temperate-zone migrants did not show a general pattern(More)
Estimation of population change from count surveys is complicated by variation in quality of information among sample units, by the need for covariates to accommodate factors that influence detectability of animals, and by multiple geographic scales of interest. We present a hierarchical model for estimation of population change from the North American(More)
SUMMARY Techniques for estimation of absolute abundance of wildlife populations have received a lot of attention in recent years. The statistical research has been focused on intensive small-scale studies. Recently, however, wildlife biologists have desired to study populations of animals at very large scales for monitoring purposes. Population indices are(More)
The salivary glands are vital to the biological success of ixodid ticks and the major route for pathogen transmission. Important functions include the absorption of water vapor from unsaturated air by free-living ticks, excretion of excess fluid for blood meal concentration, and the secretion of bioactive protein and lipid compounds during tick feeding.(More)
Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful(More)
Maps generated from bird survey data are used for a variety of scientific purposes, but little is known about their bias and precision. We review methods for preparing maps from point count data and appropriate sampling methods for maps based on point counts. Maps based on point counts can be affected by bias associated with incomplete counts, primarily due(More)