John R Richert

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Previous studies with a panel of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific human T-cell clones suggested a clustering of epitopes in the middle and at the C terminus of the molecule. The current study demonstrates that 19 of 40 clones recognize a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 152 to 170 of the human MBP molecule and that 9 clones recognize a(More)
We have examined previously the peptide specificity of the T cell response to myelin basic protein (MBP) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls, and demonstrated that an epitope spanning amino acids 87-106 was frequently recognized. Because this region is encephalitogenic in some experimental animals, it has been postulated that the(More)
Cytokines play a crucial role as mediators of inflammation. Astrocytes and microglia are the two major glial cells involved in the central nervous system immune responses. In this study we examined the effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10), one of the naturally occurring inhibitory cytokines, on different types of glial cells in culture such as rat astrocytes,(More)
The in vivo study of immunologic mechanisms in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) requires, in some instances, the use of transgenic mice. As FVB mice represent a strain whose fertilized ova possess a relatively large pronucleus, this is a preferred strain in which to generate mice that are transgenic for a variety of genes. An important issue,(More)
By using a panel of HLA-D-defined subtypes of HLA-DR2 HCL with known beta chain structural variabilities, we have demonstrated that HLA-DR2, OKT4+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones specific for measles virus are apparently restricted to a distinct DR beta chain. The presence of this DR beta 2 molecule correlated precisely with the susceptibility of(More)
We have expanded cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T lymphocytes obtained from four patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Fresh CSF cells were placed into culture with medium, interleukin-2, irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and either myelin basic protein (BP) or measles virus antigen. Two CSF cell lines demonstrated a mild degree of(More)
Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) on MRI lesion activity and load, atrophy, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measures from the Comparator and an Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (CONFIRM) study. Methods: CONFIRM was a 2-year, placebo-controlled(More)
To evaluate differential gene expression in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and control subjects, we used differential display to screen for messenger RNAs that are differentially expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monozygotic twins who are discordant for MS. We identified a 232-bp complementary DNA fragment, present only in material from(More)
Although myelin basic protein (MBP)-recognizing T cells are not readily obtained after immunization of BALB/c mice with MBP (reflecting the BALB/c resistance to actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), they can be expanded and cloned after several rounds of in vitro culture. The majority of BALB/c-derived clones recognize an(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, incurable disease. Treatment consists of lifelong disease and symptom management. FDA-approved therapies for relapsing MS include subcutaneous (SC) interferon beta-1b (IFNbeta1b, Betaseron), IM interferon-beta-1a (Avonex), SC interferon-beta-1a (Rebif), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), and mitoxantrone (Novantrone), all(More)