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Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian(More)
In vivo glucocorticoid (GC) secretion exhibits a distinctive ultradian rhythmicity. The lipophilic hormone can rapidly diffuse into cells, although only the pulse peak is of sufficient amplitude to activate the low affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Discrete pulses readily access brain regions such as the hippocampus where GR expression is enriched and(More)
Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones are secreted from the adrenal gland in a characteristic pulsatile pattern. This ultradian secretory activity exhibits remarkable plasticity, with distinct changes in response to both physiological and stressful stimuli in humans and experimental animals. It is therefore important to understand how the pattern of GC exposure(More)
In recent years it has become evident that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action in the nucleus is highly dynamic, characterized by a rapid exchange at the chromatin template. This stochastic mode of GR action couples perfectly with a deterministic pulsatile availability of endogenous ligand in vivo. The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone (cortisol in man and(More)
Glucocorticoids are essential for life, but are also implicated in disease pathogenesis and may produce unwanted effects when given in high doses. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transcriptional activity and clinical outcome have been linked to its oligomerization state. Although a point mutation within the GR DNA-binding domain (GRdim mutant) has been(More)
Glucocorticoids regulate hippocampal function in part by modulating gene expression through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR binding is highly cell type specific, directed to accessible chromatin regions established during tissue differentiation. Distinct classes of GR binding sites are dependent on the activity of additional signal-activated(More)
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid-hormone-activated transcription factor that modulates gene expression. Transcriptional regulation by the GR requires dynamic receptor binding to specific target sites located across the genome. This binding remodels the chromatin structure to allow interaction with other transcription factors. Thus, chromatin(More)
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