John R Macarthur

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IMPORTANCE Intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to control malaria during pregnancy is used in 37 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and 31 of those countries use the standard 2-dose regimen. However, 2 doses may not provide protection during the last 4 to 10 weeks of pregnancy, a pivotal period for fetal weight gain. OBJECTIVE To(More)
I the 1970s, Chinese government scientists working on a secret “Project 523” developed a new class of potent antimalarial drugs, the artemisinins or qinghaosu derivatives. In mostly unpublished work that has just been recognized by a 2011 Lasker Award to Tu Youyou, researchers in China isolated the active compounds from the plant Artemisia annua, tested(More)
PROBLEM/CONDITION Malaria is caused by any of four species of intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (i.e., P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, or P. malariae). These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles sp. mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to(More)
We estimated the frequency of clinically diagnosed Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (CTX) in Blantyre District, Malawi. Cases were detected by passive surveillance at 22 health centers from March 2001 through September 2002. Denominators were estimated(More)
The development of resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge for global malaria control. Artemisinin-based combination therapies, the newest class of antimalarials, are used worldwide but there have been reports of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. In February through May 2013, we conducted open-label, nonrandomized therapeutic efficacy(More) Vol 380 August 11, 2012 559 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at thelancet/ 4 Kahama-Maro J, D’Acremont V, Mtasiwa D, Genton B, Lengeler C. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at diff erent levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam. Malaria J 2011; 10: 332. 5 Makani J,(More)
Recent outbreaks of locally acquired mosquito-transmitted malaria in the United States demonstrate the continued risk for reintroduction of the disease. Since 1957, when CDC's Malaria Branch started conducting malaria surveillance, 63 outbreaks have occurred, constituting 156 cases (annual range: 1-32) that were a result of locally acquired mosquitoborne(More)
In September and October 1998, a cryptosporidiosis outbreak occurred on a Washington, DC, university campus. In a case-control study of 88 case patients and 67 control subjects, eating in 1 of 2 cafeterias was associated with diarrheal illness (P<.001). Morbidity was associated with eating dinner on 22 September (odds ratio, 8.1; 95% confidence interval,(More)
As part of an effort to assess antimalarial drug resistance in Peru, we carried out 14-day in vivo efficacy trials of chloroquine (CQ; 25 mg/kg) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; 25 mg/kg of the sulfadoxine component) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections at three sites on the northern coast of Peru. Mefloquine (MQ; 15 mg/kg)(More)
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been promoted as a means to reduce malaria transmission due to their ability to kill both asexual blood stages of malaria parasites, which sustain infections over long periods and the immature derived sexual stages responsible for infecting mosquitoes and onward transmission. Early studies reported a temporal(More)