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Mast cell-associated mediators are generally classified into two groups: the preformed mediators, which are stored in the cells' cytoplasmic granules and are released upon exocytosis, and the newly synthesized mediators, which are not stored but are produced and secreted only after appropriate stimulation of the cell. We now report that tumor necrosis(More)
Research suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Current theories suggest that inflammatory mediators including cytokines and chemokines may underlie the increased risk of these disorders in humans. For example, elevated maternal(More)
PMN are critical to innate immunity and are fundamental to antibacterial defense. To localize to sites of infection, PMN possess receptors that detect chemoattractant stimuli elicited at the site, such as chemokines, complement split products, or bioactive lipids. Signaling through these receptors stimulates chemotaxis toward the site of infection but also(More)
We recognize well the abilities of dendritic cells to activate effector T cell (Teff cell) responses to an array of antigens and think of these cells in this context as pre-eminent antigen-presenting cells, but dendritic cells are also critical to the induction of immunologic tolerance. Herein, we review our knowledge on the different kinds of tolerogenic(More)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the resources, including operations and information technology that have contributed to the competitive position of the Port of Singapore. We present a detailed discussion of the Port and its resources, and analyze the case using the resource-based view of strategy. A firm with a competitive advantage excels in time,(More)
The lack of efficient T-cell infiltration of tumors is a major obstacle to successful adoptive T-cell therapy. We have shown that transplanted SP2/0 myeloma tumors that have been engineered to express lymphotactin (Lptn) invariably regress under the influence of infiltrating XCR1+T cells and neutrophils. Herein, we characterize these T cells and investigate(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Neonatal stress induces permanent physiological changes that may influence the immune system. Early-life stress increases asthma disease severity in children. We investigated the effects of early-life stress on allergic airway inflammation using a murine model of asthma coupled to maternal separation as an early-life stress stimulus. (More)
CXCR1 and CXCR2 together with cognate chemokines are significantly upregulated in a number of cancers, where they act as key regulators of tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. We have previously reported a mutant protein of CXCL8/Interleukin-8, CXCL8(3-72)K11R/G31P (G31P), which can act as a selective antagonist towards CXCR1/2 with(More)
Regular salbutamol use can exacerbate allergen-induced airway eosinophilia in asthmatics, but its effect on airway eosinophil chemokine responses is unknown. Asthmatic subjects (n=14) were treated for 10 days with placebo or salbutamol in a double-blind, cross-over study, then given same-dose allergen challenges. Their sputa were then analysed 1 and 7 h(More)