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Diarrhea is frequent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but few interventions are available for people in Africa. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a home-based, safe water intervention on the incidence and severity of diarrhea among persons with HIV living in rural Uganda. Between April 2001 and November 2002,(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) is recommended for people with HIV infection or AIDS but is rarely used in Africa. We assessed the effect of such prophylaxis on morbidity, mortality, CD4-cell count, and viral load among people with HIV infection living in rural Uganda, an area with high rates of bacterial(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available in Africa, but physicians and clinical services are few. We therefore assessed the effect of a home-based ART programme in Uganda on mortality, hospital admissions, and orphanhood in people with HIV-1 and their household members. METHODS In 2001, we enrolled and followed up 466 HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 and malaria are common infections in Africa, and cause substantial morbidity and mortality. HIV infection has been associated with an increased incidence of malaria, and more severe disease. Our aim was to assess the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the frequency of clinical malaria in people with HIV, and to measure the additive(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis taken by persons with HIV on community health and antimicrobial resistance is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis taken by persons with HIV on morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheal pathogens infecting their HIV-negative family members. DESIGN(More)
Currently, 95% of the 40 million persons with HIV live in low and middle income countries; 27 million in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death in the region, yet access to care and treatment considered standard-of-care in the industrialized world is extremely limited. There is a need for standardized, evidence-based recommendations on(More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for(More)
The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess the effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis taken by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons on the selection of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)-resistant malaria parasites among HIV-uninfected household members. A total of 2,567 HIV-uninfected persons from 605 households were followed and(More)
BACKGROUND Daily prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole) by persons with HIV reduces morbidity and mortality and is recommended by Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization (WHO), but there are limited published cost-effectiveness data for this intervention. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of(More)