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BACKGROUND The gut microbiome plays a role in the regulation of the immune system. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 26 kidney transplant recipients and collected serial fecal specimens (N=85) during the first three months of transplantation. We characterized bacterial composition by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA V4-V5 variable(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequent, serious complication in kidney allograft recipients. METHODS We reviewed the records of 1166 kidney allograft recipients who received their allografts at our institution between January 2005 and December 2010 and determined the incidence of UTI during the first 3 months after transplantation (early(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D, in addition to its established role in bone metabolism, may regulate the immune system and affect the outcome of allografts. METHODS We identified 351 kidney allograft recipients who had serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) measured within the first 30 days of transplantation. We evaluated the relationship between the(More)
Tacrolimus dosing to establish therapeutic levels in recipients of organ transplants is a challenging task because of much interpatient and intrapatient variability in drug absorption, metabolism, and disposition. In view of the reported impact of gut microbial species on drug metabolism, we investigated the relationship between the gut microbiota and(More)
Noninvasive diagnosis and prognostication of acute cellular rejection in the kidney allograft may help realize the full benefits of kidney transplantation. To investigate whether urine metabolites predict kidney allograft status, we determined levels of 749 metabolites in 1516 urine samples from 241 kidney graft recipients enrolled in the prospective(More)
Current strategies to improve graft outcome following kidney transplantation consider information at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci. Cell surface antigens, in addition to HLA, may serve as the stimuli as well as the targets for the anti-allograft immune response and influence long-term graft outcomes. We therefore performed exome sequencing of DNA(More)
PURPOSE To use the power of knowledge acquisition and machine learning in the development of a collaborative computer classification system based on the features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS A vocabulary was acquired from four AMD experts who examined 100 ophthalmoscopic images. The vocabulary was analyzed, hierarchically structured,(More)