John R. Jaenike

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Recent studies have shown that some plants and animals harbor microbial symbionts that protect them against natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that a maternally transmitted bacterium, Spiroplasma, protects Drosophila neotestacea against the sterilizing effects of a parasitic nematode, both in the laboratory and the field. This nematode parasitizes D.(More)
Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings(More)
A substantial fraction of insects and other terrestrial arthropods are infected with parasitic, maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate host reproduction. In addition to imposing direct selection on the host to resist these effects, endosymbionts may also have indirect effects on the evolution of the mtDNA with which they are(More)
Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among insects and in many cases cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Such findings have been used to argue that Wolbachia have played an important role in insect speciation. Theoretical models, however, indicate that Wolbachia alone are(More)
We describe a variety of restriction site polymorphisms in the introns of Ascaris nuclear genes and in the ribosomal DNA spacers. We use these markers, in addition to previously described mitochondrial variation, to clarify our understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris in Guatemalan villages where humans and pigs occur in sympatry and to describe the(More)
Wolbachia infect a variety of arthropod and nematode hosts, but in arthropods, host phylogenetic relationships are usually poor predictors of strain similarity. This suggests that new infections are often established by horizontal transmission. To gain insight into the factors affecting the probability of horizontal transmission among host species, we ask(More)
In Guatemalan villages people commonly rear pigs, and both hosts may be infected with Ascaris. This study was designed to ask whether both humans and pigs are potential hosts in a single parasite transmission cycle in such villages, or alternatively, if there are two separate transmission cycles, one involving pigs and one involving human hosts. Parasites(More)
Patterns of genetic subdivision in parasite populations can provide important insights into transmission processes and complement information obtained using traditional epidemiological techniques. We describe mitochondrial sequence variation in 265 Ascaris collected from 62 individual hosts (humans and pigs) from 35 households in 3 Guatemalan locations.(More)
Maternally inherited microbes that spread via male-killing are common pathogens of insects, yet very little is known about the evolutionary duration of these associations. The few examples to date indicate very recent, and thus potentially transient, infections. A male-killing strain of Wolbachia has recently been discovered in natural populations of(More)