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To test the validity, magnitude, and clinical significance of the signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal defined by DSM-III, both observed and reported signs and symptoms were measured in 50 smokers during two days of ad lib smoking and then during the first four days of abstinence. Observer and subject ratings of the DSM-III symptoms of craving for(More)
The authors review the literature examining the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Findings from animal laboratory research are briefly reviewed, and human laboratory and clinical studies are surveyed in more detail. Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows(More)
The prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients (N = 277) was significantly higher than among either local or national population-based samples (N = 1,440 and 17,000) (52% versus 30% and 33%). The higher prevalence was not associated with the age, sex, marital status, socioeconomic status, alcohol use, coffee use, or institutionalization of the(More)
Electrical activity of each brain region is homeostatically regulated, resulting in predictable frequency composition of the background EEG. Replicated normative databases have established that the EEG power spectrum is independent of ethnic background. Artifact-free EEG evaluated relative to such norms displays few deviant values in healthy, normally(More)
Smokers (n = 315) who wished to quit were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to groups using either nicotine or placebo gum. Self-reported and observed symptoms of tobacco withdrawal were collected before cessation and at follow-ups of 1 to 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months. Self-reported and/or observed anger, anxiety, craving, difficulty(More)
  • John R Hughes
  • 2007
This article updates a 1990 review of the effects of tobacco abstinence by reviewing (a) the etiology, (b) animal models, (c) the epidemiology, and (d) the clinical significance of tobacco abstinence effects. The author searched several databases to locate more than 3,500 citations on tobacco abstinence effects between 1990 and 2004. For brevity, the review(More)
In four prior studies, caffeine (100 mg) self-administration was assessed by greater self-administration of caffeinated coffee than decaffeinated coffee and caffeine withdrawal was assessed by placebo substitution using six double-blind tests in each subject. This paper collates data across these studies to examine the incidence and predictors of the(More)
  • John R Hughes
  • 2007
This article updates a 1990 review of the effects of tobacco abstinence by reviewing (a) which symptoms are valid indicators of tobacco abstinence and (b) the time course of tobacco abstinence symptoms. The author searched several databases to locate more than 3,500 citations on tobacco abstinence effects between 1990 and 2004; 120 of these were used in(More)
In January 2005, J.R. Hughes and M. Melyn published an electroencephalographic study on autistic children and found 46% with seizures and also a relatively high prevalence of 20% with epileptiform discharges but without any clinical seizures (Clin EEG Neurosci 2005;36:15-20). Because the discharges have always been viewed as focal events and the clinical(More)
  • J R Hughes
  • 1992
Self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal were assessed precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased, and heart rate decreased, postcessation (p less than .001).(More)