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To test the validity, magnitude, and clinical significance of the signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal defined by DSM-III, both observed and reported signs and symptoms were measured in 50 smokers during two days of ad lib smoking and then during the first four days of abstinence. Observer and subject ratings of the DSM-III symptoms of craving for(More)
BACKGROUND There are two reasons to believe antidepressants might help in smoking cessation. First, depression may be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal, and smoking cessation sometimes precipitates depression. Second, smoking appears to be due, in part, to deficits in dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, all of which are increased by antidepressants. (More)
Smokers (n = 315) who wished to quit were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to groups using either nicotine or placebo gum. Self-reported and observed symptoms of tobacco withdrawal were collected before cessation and at follow-ups of 1 to 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months. Self-reported and/or observed anger, anxiety, craving, difficulty(More)
A workgroup formed by the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco reviewed the literature on abstinence measures used in trials of smoking cessation interventions. We recommend that trials report multiple measures of abstinence. However, at a minimum we recommend that trial: (a) report prolonged abstinence (i.e., sustained abstinence after an initial(More)
  • J R Hughes
  • 1992
Self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal were assessed precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased, and heart rate decreased, postcessation (p less than .001).(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the relapse curve and rate of long-term prolonged abstinence among smokers who try to quit without treatment. METHOD Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Reviews, Dissertation Abstracts, Excerpt Medica, Medline, Psych Abstracts and US Center for Disease Control databases plus bibliographies of articles and requests(More)
  • John R Hughes
  • 2007
This article updates a 1990 review of the effects of tobacco abstinence by reviewing (a) which symptoms are valid indicators of tobacco abstinence and (b) the time course of tobacco abstinence symptoms. The author searched several databases to locate more than 3,500 citations on tobacco abstinence effects between 1990 and 2004; 120 of these were used in(More)
The authors review the literature examining the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Findings from animal laboratory research are briefly reviewed, and human laboratory and clinical studies are surveyed in more detail. Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows(More)
In four prior studies, caffeine (100 mg) self-administration was assessed by greater self-administration of caffeinated coffee than decaffeinated coffee and caffeine withdrawal was assessed by placebo substitution using six double-blind tests in each subject. This paper collates data across these studies to examine the incidence and predictors of the(More)
Response requirement and dose of drug per administration are two separate factors that have been demonstrated to control drug self-administration. Recent developments in behavioral economics have shown that these two factors are in fact functionally equivalent for nondrug reinforcers, as indicated by a unit-price analysis. In this review, the unit-price(More)