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Proton spectroscopy can noninvasively provide useful information on brain tumor type and grade. Short- (30 ms) and long- (136 ms) echo time (TE) (1)H spectra were acquired from normal white matter (NWM), meningiomas, grade II astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and metastases. Very low myo-Inositol ([mI]) and creatine ([Cr]) were(More)
For more than half a century it has been generally believed that cancer cells are more acidic than normal cells. This dogma arose from the studies of Warburg and co-workers (Warburg, 1930) who showed that tumour cells preferentially convert glucose and other substrates to lactic acid, even under aerobic conditions. Since lactic acid has a pK of 3.7 it(More)
Cell growth (accumulation of mass) needs to be coordinated with metabolic processes that are required for the synthesis of macromolecules. The PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway induces cell growth via activation of complex 1 of the target of rapamycin (TORC1). Here we show that Akt-dependent lipogenesis requires mTORC1 activity. Furthermore, nuclear(More)
Automated pattern recognition techniques are needed to help radiologists categorize MRS data of brain tumors according to histological type and grade. A major question is whether a computer program "trained" on spectra from one hospital will be able to classify those from another, particularly if the acquisition protocol is different. A subset of 144(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of aging on brain metabolite concentrations, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), the major marker of neurones, using short echo proton spectroscopy. Single-voxel proton spectra (TE 30 msec, TR 2 seconds) were obtained from white and gray matter using automated software (PROBE, G.E., Milwaukee, WI). Spectra(More)
A comparison between a time domain analysis algorithm (VARPRO) and a frequency domain analysis algorithm (FITPLAC) for parameter estimation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data series is presented. VARPRO analyses the measured MRS signal (free induction decay; FID); FITPLAC analyses the discrete Fourier transform of the FID, the frequency domain(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to decipher metabolic processes servicing the increased energy demand during persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and to ascertain whether metabolic derangements might instigate this arrhythmia. BACKGROUND Whereas electrical, structural, and contractile remodeling processes are well-recognized contributors to the self-perpetuating(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) provides biochemical information from tissue non-invasively, and has an evolving role in brain tumour diagnosis and management. We present 100 consecutive patients with brain tumours who had single voxel 1HMRS as part of their preoperative investigations. We report the histopathological findings and the(More)
BACKGROUND HIF-1 deficiency has marked effects on tumour glycolysis and growth. We therefore investigated the consequences of HIF-1 deficiency in mice, using the well established Hepa-1 wild-type (WT) and HIF-1β-deficient (c4) model. These mechanisms could be clinically relevant, since HIF-1 is now a therapeutic target. METHODS Hepa-1 WT and c4 tumours(More)
Radiological methods exist for generating tissue-specific images of bone, vessels, lymphatics, abdominal viscera, and the central nervous system, but there has been no reliable means to generate a clinical image of a nerve. We present the first "image neurogram" and report a method for producing such images by use of commercial magnetic resonance imaging(More)