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We recorded the activity of the right and left descending contralateral movement detectors responding to 10-cm (small) or 20-cm (large) computer-generated spheres approaching along different trajectories in the locust's frontal field of view. In separate experiments we examined the steering responses of tethered flying locusts to identical stimuli. The(More)
BACKGROUND Studies examining rapid spine loading have documented the influence of steady-state trunk preloads, and the resulting levels of trunk muscle preactivation, on the control of spine stability. However, the effects of different levels of muscle coactivation, and resulting spine loads, on the response to a perturbation of the externally unloaded(More)
Many animals must contend with visual cues that provide information about the spatiotemporal dynamics of multiple objects in their environment. Much research has been devoted to understanding how an identified pair of interneurons in the locust, the Descending Contralateral Movement Detectors (DCMDs), respond to objects on an impending collision course.(More)
The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD) constitute one motion-sensitive pathway in the locust visual system that is implicated in collision-avoidance behaviors. While this pathway is thought to respond preferentially to objects approaching on a direct collision course, emerging studies suggest the(More)
PURPOSE This study was conducted to quantify the normalized amplitudes of the abdominal wall and back extensor musculature during a variety of push-up styles. We also sought to quantify their impact on spinal loading by calculating spinal compression and torque generation in the L4-5 area. METHODS Ten university-age participants, nine males and one(More)
The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and its target neuron, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), constitute a motion-sensitive pathway in the locust visual system that responds preferentially to objects approaching on a collision course. LGMD receptive field properties, anisotropic distribution of local retinotopic inputs across the(More)
Fluorometric studies have been made with modified slit-lamp microscopes. These instruments offered considerable versatility in modifying experimental parameters, but were seldom optimized in terms of detector and illuminator apertures, filter band-pass characteristics, detection system, light-source stabilization, or optical resolution. Improper control of(More)
Neurons in the locust visual system encode approaches of looming stimuli and are implicated in production of escape behaviours. The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic partner, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD) compute characteristics of expanding edges across the locust eye during a loom and DCMD synapses onto(More)
[1] Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based(More)
Maturation of the flight system of Locusta migratoria occurs during the first two weeks following imaginal ecdysis. One aspect of maturation is an increase in the wingbeat frequency from about 13 Hz to about 23 Hz. We investigated physiological and anatomical mechanisms that may contribute to this process. The difference between the frequencies of the(More)