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1. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the characteristics of two types of sodium current (INa) recorded at room temperature from small diameter (13-25 microns) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, isolated from adult rats and maintained overnight in culture. 2. Sodium currents were isolated pharmacologically. Internal Cs+ and external(More)
Measurements have been made of gramicidin single-channel lifetimes in monoacylglycerol bilayers chosen so that their thickness ranged from above to below the length of the gramicidin channel. Contact angles, electrical capacities and bulk-phase interfacial tensions have also been determined for these systems. The mean channel lifetime decreased with the(More)
1. Whole-cell and single-channel Na+ currents were recorded from small (ca. 20 micron diameter) cells isolated from adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Currents were classified by their sensitivity to 0.3 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX), electrophysiological properties and single-channel amplitude. Cells were classified according to the types of current recorded(More)
The short-chain phospholipid, diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine, at 520 microM, reduced the maximum inward sodium current in voltage-clamped squid giant axons by greater than 50%. Analysis of these currents by means of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations showed this reduction to be mainly the result of a large depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of the(More)
The effects of octyltrimethylammonium ions (OTMA+), octyl sulphate ions (OS-) and octanoic acid (OA) on the sodium current of the voltage-clamped squid giant axon have been investigated using intracellular and extracellular application of the test substances. OTMA+ applied externally at concentrations of 0.8-5.0 mM produces a small reversible increase in(More)
Monophasic compound action potentials were recorded from Rana sciatic nerves. Three distinct peaks were observed and designated A alpha, A delta and C. All peaks were abolished by replacement of the external medium with Na(+)-free solution. However, the C peak alone was unaffected by external application of 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX), both A peaks were(More)
The effects of low and clinically relevant concentrations of inhalation anaesthetics and related compounds on the firing behaviour of nerve axons from a number of species are described. The observation of substantial, if sometimes transient, changes in excitability is contrasted with the view that axonal ion channels are insensitive to many general(More)
1. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the actions of n-octyl sulphate (OS-) anions and n-octyl trimethylammonium (OTMA+) cations on sodium current steady-state inactivation and peak amplitude in cells isolated from dorsal root ganglia of neonatal rats and maintained in short-term tissue culture. This paper concentrates on the effects(More)