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Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered (unstructured) proteins that are expressed in plants experiencing stressful conditions such as drought or low temperature. Dehydrins are typically found in the cytosol and nucleus, but also associate with chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the plasma membrane. Although their role is not completely understood, it has been(More)
Hole growth measurements were performed using optical microscopy on freely standing polystyrene films at temperatures that were slightly larger than the bulk value of the glass transition temperature T(bulk)g. For the measured range of temperatures, we have observed a transition from linear growth of the hole radius R during the early stages to exponential(More)
Group 2 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, also known as dehydrins, are intrinsically disordered proteins that are expressed in plants experiencing extreme environmental conditions such as drought or low temperatures. These proteins are characterized by the presence of at least one conserved, lysine-rich K-segment and sometimes by one or more(More)
In this work, we show molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of gramicidin, a model antibacterial peptide, inserted into a phospholipid matrix. The resolution of the images is superior to that obtained in previous attempts to image gramicidin in a lipid environment using atomic force microscopy (AFM). This breakthrough has allowed(More)
The biodegradation of cellulose involves the enzymatic action of cellulases (endoglucanases), cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases), and β-glucosidases that act synergistically. The rate and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose in vitro decline markedly with time, limiting the large-scale, cost-effective production of cellulosic(More)
Bacterial biofilms are responsible for the majority of all microbial infections and have profound impact on industrial and geochemical processes. While many studies documented phenotypic differentiation and gene regulation of biofilms, the importance of their structural and mechanical properties is poorly understood. Here we investigate how changes in(More)
Bacterial biofilms are the most prevalent mode of bacterial growth in nature. Adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play important roles at different stages of biofilm development. Following irreversible attachment of bacterial cells onto a surface, a biofilm can grow in which its matrix viscoelasticity helps to maintain structural integrity,(More)
Dehydrins are intrinsically unstructured proteins that are expressed in plants experiencing extreme environmental conditions such as drought or low temperature. Although their role is not completely understood, it has been suggested that they stabilize proteins and membrane structures during environmental stress and also sequester metals such as zinc. Here,(More)
The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria is responsible for many important biological functions: it plays a structural role, it accommodates the selective transfer of material across the cell wall, it undergoes changes made necessary by growth and division, and it transfers information about the environment into the cell. Thus, an accurate quantification(More)