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Neuropsychologists often need to estimate the abnormality of an individual patient's test score, or test score discrepancies, when the normative or control sample against which the patient is compared is modest in size. Crawford and Howell [The Clinical Neuropsychologist 12 (1998) 482] and Crawford et al. [Journal of Clinical and Experimental(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data. DESIGN Cross-sectional and correlational. METHOD The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS(More)
In neuropsychological single-case studies, a patient is compared with a small control sample. Methods of testing for a deficit on Task X, or a significant difference between Tasks X and Y, either treat the control sample statistics as parameters (using z and zD) or use modified t tests. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that if z is used to test for a(More)
The conventional criteria for a classical dissociation in single-case studies require that a patient be impaired on one task and within normal limits on another. J. R. Crawford and P. H. Garthwaite (2005) proposed an additional criterion, namely, that the patient's (standardized) difference on the two tasks should differ from the distribution of differences(More)
A meta-analysis of 31 studies with 1,791 participants was conducted to investigate the sensitivity of tests of verbal fluency to the presence of focal cortical lesions. Relative to healthy controls, participants with focal frontal injuries had large and comparable deficits on phonemic (r = .52) and semantic (r = .54) fluency. For frontal but not nonfrontal(More)
A meta-analysis of prospective memory (PM) studies revealed that in laboratory settings younger participants outperform older participants on tests of both time- and event-based PM (rs=-.39 and -.34, respectively). Event-based PM tasks that impose higher levels of controlled strategic demand are associated with significantly larger age effects than(More)
OBJECTIVES To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population.(More)
It is increasingly common for group studies in neuropsychology to report effect sizes. In contrast this is rarely done in single-case studies (at least in those studies that employ a case-controls design). The present paper sets out the advantages of reporting effect sizes, derives suitable effect size indexes for use in single-case studies, and develops(More)
Frequentist methods are available for comparison of a patient's test score (or score difference) to a control or normative sample; these methods also provide a point estimate of the percentage of the population that would obtain a more extreme score (or score difference) and, for some problems, an accompanying interval estimate (i.e., confidence limits) on(More)
OBJECTIVES To provide UK normative data for the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and test its convergent, discriminant and construct validity. DESIGN Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). METHODS The DASS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N =(More)