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This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of intended use. In this review, scientific data relevant to(More)
Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism of methyleugenol to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol has been investigated in vitro. Kinetic studies undertaken in liver microsomes from control male Fischer 344 rats revealed that this reaction is catalyzed by high affinity (Km of 74.9 +/- 9.0 microM, Vmax of 1.42 +/- 0.17 nmol/min/nmol P450) and low(More)
1. The metabolites of (+/-)-2-methylamino-1-phenyl[1-(14)C]propane ([(14)C]methamphetamine) in urine were examined in man, rat and guinea pig. 2. In two male human subjects receiving the drug orally (20mg per person) about 90% of the (14)C was excreted in the urine in 4 days. The urine of the first day was examined for metabolites, and the main metabolites(More)
The 2-arylpropionic acids are currently an important group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. They contain a chiral centre, and in vitro studies on inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis show that their activity resides almost exclusively in the S(+)-isomers. However, this stereoselectivity of action is not manifest in vivo, due to the(More)
The metabolism and kinetics of 14C-labeled theophylline have been studied after intravenous doses of 100 mg to healthy subjects, keeping to their usual diets after 7 days of abstention from methylxanthine-containing foods and beverages and again after such abstention while taking caffeine and theophylline in tablet form. The metabolism of oral(More)
The major metabolic pathways of estragole have been established in rats and mice, and in both species the relative importance of the different pathways has been shown to be dose related. At low doses, estragole mainly undergoes detoxication reactions, notably O-demethylation and side-chain cleavage, but as the dose is increased, the extent of(More)
While the alkenylbenzenes alpha- and beta-asarone are hepatocarcinogenic in rodents, myristicin and elimicin, two other alkenylbenzenes, are not. The present study investigated the mechanism of genotoxicity of the asarones to elucidate the role of cytochrome P-450 and obtain further information about the relationships between the structure, metabolism and(More)
The metabolism of [3-14C/phenyl-2H5] cinnamic acid was investigated in rats and mice at a dose level of 2.5 mmol/kg body weight. Recoveries of the 14C dose were between 92 and 98% with most (82-90%) present in the 0-24 hr urine samples. Urinary metabolites were identified by their chromatographic properties and mass spectra. In both species the major(More)
1. The metabolic fates of the naturally occurring food flavours trans-anethole and estragole, and their synthetic congener p-propylanisole, have been investigated in human volunteers using the [methoxy-14C]-labelled compounds. The doses used were close to those encountered in the diet, 1 mg, 100 micrograms and 100 micrograms respectively. 2. In each case,(More)