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  • J R Arthur
  • 2000
There are several proteins in mammalian cells that can metabolize hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides. These proteins include four selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases that are found in different cell fractions and tissues of the body. This review considers the structure and distribution of the selenoperoxidases and how this relates to their(More)
Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications,(More)
Selenium as an essential component of selenocysteine-containing protein is involved in most aspects of cell biochemistry and function. As such, there is much potential for selenium to influence the immune system. For example, the antioxidant glutathione peroxidases are likely to protect neutrophils from oxygen-derived radicals that are produced to kill(More)
The trace element selenium (Se) is capable of exerting multiple actions on endocrine systems by modifying the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins, many of which have clearly defined functions. Well-characterized selenoenzymes are the families of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxin reductases (TRs) and iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds). These(More)
Regulation of synthesis of the selenoenzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGSH-Px) and type-1 iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (5'IDI) was investigated in liver, thyroid and heart of rats fed on diets containing 0.405, 0.104 (Se-adequate), 0.052, 0.024 or 0.003 mg of Se/kg. Severe Se deficiency(More)
Selenium (Se)-containing proteins have important roles in protecting cells from oxidative damage. This work investigated the effects of Se-depletion on the expression of the genes encoding selenoproteins in colonic mucosa from rats fed diets of different Se content and in human intestinal Caco-2 cells grown in Se-adequate or Se-depleted culture medium.(More)
Normal thyroid status is dependent on the presence of many trace elements for both the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones. Iodine is most important as a component of the hormones, thyroxine and 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and iodine deficiency may affect approximately one billion people throughout the world. Selenium is essential for normal(More)
Selenium (Se), a micronutrient essential for human health, is incorporated into at least 25 selenoproteins including selenoprotein P (SePP), which transports Se within the body. This research identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SePP gene, one in the coding region (position 24731, causing an Ala to Thr change) and one in the(More)
This paper compares the effects of combined iodine and selenium deficiency, of single deficiencies of these trace elements, and of no deficiency on thyroid hormone metabolism in rats. In rats deficient in both trace elements, thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxin (T4), thyroidal total iodine, hepatic T4, and plasma T4 were significantly lower,(More)
Selenium depletion of H4 hepatoma cells reduced cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGSH-Px) mRNA abundance but had no effect on phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGSH-Px) mRNA abundance. Actinomycin D chase experiments showed that selenium depletion had no effect on the stability of PHGSH-Px mRNA but decreased the stability of cGSH-Px mRNA.(More)