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A converging body of literature over the last 50 years has implicated the amygdala in assigning emotional significance or value to sensory information. In particular, the amygdala has been shown to be an essential component of the circuitry underlying fear-related responses. Disorders in the processing of fear-related information are likely to be the(More)
We model notions of computation using algebraic operations and equations. We show that these generate several of the monads of primary interest that have been used to model computational effects, with the striking omission of the continuations monad. We focus on semantics for global and local state, showing that taking operations and equations as primitive(More)
We deene the notion of enriched Lawvere theory, for enrichment over a monoidal biclosed category V that is locally nitely presentable as a closed category. We prove that the category of enriched Lawvere theories is equivalent to the category of nitary monads on V. Morever, the V-category of models of a Lawvere V-theory is equivalent to the V-category of(More)
Cellular properties of CA1 neurons were studied in hippocampal slices 24 hr after acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning in young adult and aging rabbits. Aging rabbits required significantly more trials than young rabbits to reach a behavioral criterion of 60% conditioned responses in an 80 trial session. Intracellular recordings revealed that CA1(More)
Aging is associated with learning deficits and a decrease in neuronal excitability, reflected by an enhanced post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP), in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. To identify the current(s) underlying the AHP altered in aging neurons, whole-cell voltage-clamp recording experiments were performed in hippocampal slices from young and(More)
Moggi proposed a monadic account of computational effects. He also presented the computational λ-calculus, λc, a core call-by-value functional programming language for effects; the effects are obtained by adding appropriate operations. The question arises as to whether one can give a corresponding treatment of operational semantics. We do this in the case(More)
Classical conditioning paradigms, such as trace conditioning, in which a silent period elapses between the offset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and delay conditioning, in which the CS and US coterminate, are widely used to study the neural substrates of associative learning. However, there are(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important modulator of learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and other brain regions. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) suppresses a variety of potassium currents, including sI(AHP), the calcium-activated potassium conductance primarily responsible for the slow(More)