John Peter Carr

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Leaf senescence is a complex process that is controlled by multiple developmental and environmental signals and is manifested by induced expression of a large number of different genes. In this paper we describe experiments that show, for the first time, that the salicylic acid (SA)-signalling pathway has a role in the control of gene expression during(More)
BACKGROUND Argonaute (AGO) proteins bind to small-interfering (si)RNAs and micro (mi)RNAs to target RNA silencing against viruses, transgenes and in regulation of mRNAs. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins but, in Arabidopsis, only AGO1 is known to have an antiviral role. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To uncover the roles of specific AGOs in limiting(More)
A mutant of the Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IA strain Fny (Fny-CMV) lacking the gene encoding the 2b protein (Fny-CMVdelta2b) induced a symptomless systemic infection in tobacco. Both the accumulation of Fny-CMVdelta2b in inoculated tissue and the systemic movement of the virus appeared to proceed more slowly than for wild-type Fny-CMV. The influence of(More)
In healthy plants extracellular ATP (eATP) regulates the balance between cell viability and death. Here we show an unexpected critical regulatory role of eATP in disease resistance and defensive signalling. In tobacco, enzymatic depletion of eATP or competition with non-hydrolysable ATP analogues induced pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression and(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) induces resistance to all plant pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, but the mechanism by which SA engenders resistance to viruses is not known. Pretreatment of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-susceptible (nn genotype) tobacco tissue with SA reduced the levels of viral RNAs and viral coat protein accumulating after inoculation(More)
The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b counter-defense protein disrupts plant antiviral mechanisms mediated by RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA). We used microarrays to investigate defensive gene expression in 2b-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Surprisingly, 2b inhibited expression of few SA-regulated genes and, in some instances, enhanced the(More)
Salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance and RNA silencing are both important plant antiviral defence mechanisms. To investigate overlap between these resistance phenomena, we examined the ability of mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking DICER-like (DCL) endoribonucleases 2, 3 and 4 to exhibit SA-induced defence. We found that in dcl2/3/4 triple mutant(More)
The RNA silencing suppressor activity of the 2b protein of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been variously attributed to its nuclear targeting, its interaction with and inhibition of Argonaute 1 (AGO1), or its ability to bind small RNAs in vitro. In addition, the 2b ortholog of Tomato aspermy virus forms aggregates and binds RNAs in vitro. We have further(More)
Seven new genes controlled by the quorum-sensing signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL) have been identified in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Using TnphoA as a mutagen, we enriched for mutants defective in proteins that could play a role in the interaction between E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and its plant hosts, and(More)
The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein suppresses RNA silencing and determines viral symptoms. Among Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing 2b proteins from mild (LS and Q CMV) or severe (Fny CMV) strains, only Fny 2b-transgenic plants displayed strong symptom-like phenotypes in leaves, stems and flowers, together with stunting of main root growth and(More)