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Pharmacological and physiological aspects for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline (NA) cotransmission have been studied in the peripheral sympathetic nervous control of blood vessels, heart, spleen and vas deferens. NPY coexists with NA in large dense cored vesicles and is released compared to NA mainly upon high frequency stimulation or strong reflex(More)
Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury can be significantly reduced by an episode(s) of ischaemia-reperfusion applied prior to or during myocardial ischaemia (MI) to peripheral tissue located at a distance from the heart; this phenomenon is called remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc). Here, we compared the efficacy of RIc in protecting the heart when the(More)
Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide originally isolated from endothelial cells. Its production is stimulated in a variety of different cell types under the influence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and during the development of cardiovascular disease. Based on these observations and the biological effects induced by ET-1,(More)
A lot of interest has engendered in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as an emerging new drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 exerts several effects that reduce glycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. We recently also demonstrated that GLP-1 ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with established coronary heart(More)
Release of specific vasoactive peptides occurs upon activation of perivascular parasympathetic (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine isoleucine), sympathetic (neuropeptide Y) and sensory (calcitonin gene-related peptide and tachykinins) nerves. These peptides may serve as cotransmitters with acetylcholine and noradrenaline with(More)
Functional integrity of the vascular endothelium is of fundamental importance for normal vascular function. A key factor regulating endothelial function is the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Recently, the enzyme arginase has emerged as an important regulator of NO production by competing for l-arginine, which is a substrate for both arginase and NO(More)
The effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on vasoconstrictor responses and overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) were studied in the dog gracilis muscle and pig spleen in vivo. A continuous regular impulse activity was compared with irregular human sympathetic and regular bursting patterns. During control(More)
The presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity (-LI) in sympathetic perivascular nerves and the functional effects of NPY and noradrenaline (NA) on vascular tone were studied in skeletal muscle of various species. A dense network of NPY-LI was found around arteries and arterioles but not venules in the gluteus maximus muscle of man, gracilis(More)
AIMS Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with low plasma concentration of adiponectin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adiponectin exerts cardioprotective effects during myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion and whether this effect is related to the production of nitric oxide (NO). METHODS AND RESULTS Isolated(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is crucial for maintaining normal endothelial function and vascular integrity. Increased arginase activity in diabetes might compete with NO synthase (NOS) for their common substrate arginine, resulting in diminished production of NO. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary microvascular function in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki(More)