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Pharmacological and physiological aspects for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline (NA) cotransmission have been studied in the peripheral sympathetic nervous control of blood vessels, heart, spleen and vas deferens. NPY coexists with NA in large dense cored vesicles and is released compared to NA mainly upon high frequency stimulation or strong reflex(More)
The coexistence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) with noradrenaline (NA) in perivascular nerves as well as in sympathetic nerves to muscle in the heart, spleen and vas deferens suggests a role for NPY in autonomic transmission. Sympathetic nerve stimulation or reflexogenic activation in experimental animals or man are associated with NPY release as revealed by(More)
Release of specific vasoactive peptides occurs upon activation of perivascular parasympathetic (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine isoleucine), sympathetic (neuropeptide Y) and sensory (calcitonin gene-related peptide and tachykinins) nerves. These peptides may serve as cotransmitters with acetylcholine and noradrenaline with(More)
The effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on vasoconstrictor responses and overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) were studied in the dog gracilis muscle and pig spleen in vivo. A continuous regular impulse activity was compared with irregular human sympathetic and regular bursting patterns. During control(More)
Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury can be significantly reduced by an episode(s) of ischaemia-reperfusion applied prior to or during myocardial ischaemia (MI) to peripheral tissue located at a distance from the heart; this phenomenon is called remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc). Here, we compared the efficacy of RIc in protecting the heart when the(More)
The presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity (-LI) in sympathetic perivascular nerves and the functional effects of NPY and noradrenaline (NA) on vascular tone were studied in skeletal muscle of various species. A dense network of NPY-LI was found around arteries and arterioles but not venules in the gluteus maximus muscle of man, gracilis(More)
A lot of interest has engendered in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as an emerging new drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 exerts several effects that reduce glycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. We recently also demonstrated that GLP-1 ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with established coronary heart(More)
Splenic nerve stimulation (10 Hz for 2 min) caused a perfusion-pressure increase, a volume reduction and an increase in the output of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) from the isolated blood-perfused cat spleen. Gel-filtration HPLC analysis revealed that plasma NPY-LI collected during nerve stimulation was similar to the NPY-LI in the spleen(More)
BACKGROUND Final infarct size following coronary occlusion is determined by the duration of ischemia, the size of myocardium at risk (MaR) and reperfusion injury. The reference method for determining MaR, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before reperfusion, is impractical in an acute setting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND Arginase competes with nitric oxide synthase for their common substrate L-arginine. Up-regulation of arginase in coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus may reduce nitric oxide bioavailability contributing to endothelial dysfunction and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Arginase inhibition reduces infarct size in animal models. Therefore(More)