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A probability model of how DDT residues may function within a malaria control program is described. A step-wise organization of endophagic behaviors culminates in a vector acquiring a human blood meal inside the house. Different vector behaviors are described, epidemiologically defined, temporally sequenced, and quantified with field data. Components of(More)
International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control(More)
In August of 2000, a comparative susceptibility study was conducted using 3 species of Anopheles mosquitoes from Belize, Central America, and a standard species used in laboratory infection studies, Anopheles stephensi. Test populations were fed human blood infected with cultured Plasmodium falciparum (NF-54 strain) parasites via a membrane feeder. The(More)
A modular and novel assay system for rapid mass screening of chemical compounds for contact irritant and spatial repellent actions against adult mosquitoes is described. The responses of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations of 3 topical repellents, deet, Bayrepel, and SS220, were evaluated. At treatment concentrations > or = 25 nmol/cm2 of SS220,(More)
A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine the effect of spatial repellent (SR) in households at risk of malaria in Indonesia. Following presumptive radical cure for malaria in 180 adult men representing sentinels of new infection in four clusters within two villages, all households were given either metofluthrin or(More)
Knowledge of the flight behavior of local vectors is of paramount importance in mosquito control programs. The following study defined the recapture rate of wild-caught, unengorged Anopheles darlingi females at 0, 400, and 800 m from a fixed release point in Belize, Central America, using a newly designed portable experimental hut. Three sampling trials,(More)
Knowledge of how mosquitoes respond to insecticides is of paramount importance in understanding how an insecticide functions to prevent disease transmission. A suite of laboratory assays was used to quantitatively characterize mosquito responses to toxic, contact irritant, and non-contact spatial repellent actions of standard insecticides. Highly replicated(More)
BACKGROUND Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype V reemerged in Asia (China) in 2009 after a 57-year hiatus from the continent, thereby emphasizing a need to increase regional surveillance efforts. Genotypic characterization was performed on 19 JEV-positive mosquito pools (18 pools of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and 1 pool of Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) from a(More)
We studied the impact of reduced residual spraying in Belize by developing a logistic regression model on relationships between numbers of houses sprayed (mostly with DDT) and numbers of malaria cases. We defined the "minimum effective house spray rate" (MEHSR) as the level of spraying that will prevent increases in malaria rates for a defined population.(More)
A previously described modular high-throughput screening system was used to characterize the spatial repellent, contact irritant, and toxicant chemical actions of 14 compounds historically used or under investigation for vector control. The response of F1-F4 Aedes aegypti (Thailand strain) to various concentrations of 4 organochlorines (chlordane, DDT,(More)